35 Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Q. 5 (2006)

handle is hein.journals/npvolsq35 and id is 1 raw text is: 



















A  Study of Organizational Effectiveness for
National Olympic Sporting Organizations


David   Shilbury
Kathleen A. Moore
Deakin   University



   This study applies the competing values approach (CVA) of organizational effectiveness
   to a sample of nonprofit Australian national Olympic sporting organizations (NOSOs).
   The purpose of the study was to determine the psychometric properties of the subscales
   developed within each of the four quadrants composing the CVA. Two hundred eighty-
   nine constituents from 10 NOSOs participated in this study. Initial factor analysis
   resulted in six of the eight theoretically derived cells in the CVA each yielding one reliable
   factor. These were Flexibility, Resources, Planning, Productivity, Availability of Infor-
   mation, and Stability. The other two cells, Skilled Workforce and Cohesive Workforce,
   each produced a two-factor structure. To understand the relationship between these mani-
   festfactors (cells) and organizational effectiveness, a confirmatory factor analysis was
   conducted, which revealed that the rational-goal model, comprising Productivity and
   Planning, was the critical determinant of effectiveness in NOSOs.

   Keywords:  organizational effectiveness; competing values; national sporting organi-
              zations; professionalization


Until the late 1970s, sport administration in Australia was the sole province of
volunteers, both  in terms of decision making  and  implementation   of sports
activities and programs. With the intervention of government  at all levels and
the subsequent   infusion of financial resources, it quickly became  apparent
that volunteers could no  longer dedicate the requisite time to determine pol-
icy as well as implement   programs.   The result has been  a transition from
purely volunteer-administered  organizations to organizations managed increas-
ingly by professional staff supported  by a cadre  of volunteers (Mills, 1994;
Shilbury, 1993, 2001). This transition is similar to that experienced in Canada
and  other parts of the world (Enjolras, 2002; Koski, 1995; Thibault, Slack, &
Hinings,  1991). By the mid-1990s,  the Australian  Sports Commission,   state
departments  of sport and recreation, and many  sports had begun  to recognize
the need  for improvements   in the overall management of sport structures,
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, vol. 35, no. 1, Month 2006 5-38
DOI: 10.1177/0899764005279512
 2006 Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action
                                                                             5

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