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43 N.C. J. Int'l L. 1 (2018)
Confucian Bureaucracy and the Administrative Enforcement of Competition Law in East Asia

handle is hein.journals/ncjint43 and id is 9 raw text is: 





    Confucian   Bureaucracy and the Administrative
    Enforcement of Competition Law in East Asia

                Mel Marquis  and Jingyuan Ma


I.    Introduction                        ..............2....... ...........2
II.   Confucian Bureaucracy: Main Characteristics ..... .....5
      A.  Confucian Thought  on Governance by Virtue............7
      B.  Confucian Thought  on Authoritarian Governance .......11
      C.  Implementation of Confucian Thought by the
          Scholar-Officials ..........................14
III.  The Influence of Confucian Bureaucracy in East Asian
      Countries       ......................................20
      A.  China                          ..................................22
      B.  Korea         .............................  .....29
      C.  Japan        ...........................    ........33
IV.   Implications for the Administrative Enforcement of
      Competition Law    .............................40
      A.  Confucian Bureaucracy  and Administrative
          Enforcement   .   .....................    ........42
          1. A State-Led Economy  ....................42
          2. Goals of Enforcement   .........................44
          3. The Administrative Model and Path
             Dependency       ......................    .....48
      B.  Confucian Bureaucracy  and the Competition
          A gency ..................................................................... 53
          1. Towards  an Independent and Transparent
             Competition Agency  .............................................53
          2. Hiring and Personnel Practices in the East
             Asian Competition Authorities ............................57
      C.  The Debate on Industrial Policy versus
          Competition Policy    ................     .........60
      D.  Implications for More Effective Competition
          Enforcement  in East Asia ............     ...........65


t Jingyuan Ma, Ph.D, is Lecturer at Central University of Finance and Economics in
Beijing. Mel Marquis, Ph.D, is Part-time Professor of Law at the European University
Institute in Florence, Professore a contratto at LUMSA University in Rome and Visiting
Scholar at Doshisha University in Kyoto. (**Again, in line with my comment above
about the author name order, Marquis' bio may need to precede Ma's**)

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