12 Nanotech. L. & Bus. 5 (2015)

handle is hein.journals/nantechlb12 and id is 1 raw text is: 

NANOTECHNOLOGY LAW & BUSINESS


                       Nanomanufacturing:

          Application of Nanotechnology in

                  Manufacturing Industries




                       Maseeh Mukhtar* and Unni Pillai**



                                        Abstract

   Advances in nanoscale science have led to the development of new materials and techniques
which are affecting production capabilities in a number of manufacturing industries. The authors
look at key  features of advances made  possible by nanoscale science that are relevant to
manufacturing  capabilities, and examine how these capabilities are being employed in six
industries: semiconductors, solar cells, rechargeable batteries, lighting, display and healthcare.


A.  Introduction

   Differences in technological capabilities are at the core of differences in economic development
across regions and countries. Governments across the globe spend massive amounts in support of
research and development to maintain technological competitiveness. A commonly held view of
technological change pictures long term technological cycles, each cycle stemming from  a
revolutionary new scientific advance. In this view, the industrial derivatives of the scientific
advance ripples through different sectors in the economy, improving the production techniques and
sparking innovation in each of them. Such fundamental scientific advances, and their industrial
applications, are often referred to as General Purpose Technologies, to capture the range of their
impact across different sectors in the economy.
   Gordon1 suggests that there were three such technological waves over the last several centuries
of industrialization. The steam engine and railroad revolution spanning 1750 to 1830 forms the
first, the electricity revolution during 1870-1900 the second, and the information technology

* Maseeh Mukhtar is a graduate student at SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, in Albany,
New York. He is the corresponding author and can be contacted at mmukhtar@albany.edu.
** Unni Pillai received a B.Eng in Electrical Engineering from Nanyang Technological University (Singapore).
He received a B.Sc in Economics from University of London, an M.Sc in Economics from London School of
Economics and Political Science and a Ph.D in Economics from University of Minnesota. He is the Director of
the Institute for the Study of International Nanomanufacturing Competitiveness.
1 Robert J. Gordon, Is U.S. Economic Growth Over? Faltering Innovation Confronts the Six Headwinds (The Nat'L
Bureau of Econ. Res., Working Paper No. 18315, 2012).

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