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2011 Mich. St. L. Rev. 405 (2011)
Swine Flu, Bird Flu, Sars, Oh my - Applying the Precautionary Principle to Compulsory Licensing of Pharmaceuticals under Article 31 of Trips

handle is hein.journals/mslr2011 and id is 411 raw text is: SWINE FLU, BIRD FLU, SARS, OH MY!
APPLYING THE PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE TO
COMPULSORY LICENSING OF PHARMACEUTICALS
UNDER ARTICLE 31 OF TRIPS
Jennifer R. Andrew
2011 MICH. ST. L. REv. 405
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRO DUCTION  ........................................................................................... 406
I. PROMOTING SCIENCE AND THE USEFUL ARTS ....................................... 409
A .  Com pulsory  Licensing  ................................................................. 410
B.  International Patent Protection  ..................................................... 411
1.  The  TRIPS  Agreem ent ............................................................ 412
a. The Structure of the TRIPS Agreement ........................... 413
b. Exceptions to Patent Protection Under the
TRIPS  A greem ent ............................................................ 415
2. The Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and
P ublic  H ealth  .......................................................................... 4 16
II. THE PRECAUTIONARY   PRINCIPLE ......................................................... 418
A. The Evolution of the Modem Precautionary Principle ................ 419
B.  A  Rose by  Any  Other Name ......................................................... 421
III. Is THERE ROOM FOR PRECAUTION IN A NATIONAL
EMERGENCY OR OTHER CIRCUMSTANCES OF EXTREME
U RG EN CY ?  ......................................................................................... 422
A. Can the Precautionary Principle Be Applied to TRIPS
Article 31 (b)?     ........................................ 422
1. Defining Customary International Law .................................. 422
2. Not Just a European Principle ............................................... 424
3. WTO Agreements Incorporating the Precautionary
P rincip le  ................................................................................ 425
4.  The  Views of International Courts .......................................... 426
B. Can Precaution Be Read Into TRIPS Article 3 1(b)? .................... 428
1. Interpreting  TRIPS Article 31(b) ............................................ 429
a. Ordinary  M eaning of the Text .......................................... 430
b. In Light of the Object and Purpose of the
TRIPS  A greem ent ............................................................ 431
c. Within Context of Other WTO Provisions ....................... 432
d. The Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and
Public Health as a Subsequent Agreement ................ 434
2. Necessary to Protect Public Health ................................... 436

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