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98 Minn. L. Rev. 511 (2013-2014)
Tattoos & IP Norms

handle is hein.journals/mnlr98 and id is 533 raw text is: Article

Tattoos & IP Norms
Aaron Perzanowskit
Introduction          ...............................      ...... 512
I. A History of Tattoos       ................................. 516
A. The Origins of Tattooing      ............     ....... 516
B. Colonialism & Tattoos in the West         .    ........... 518
C. The Tattoo Renaissance                    .................... 521
II. Law, Norms & Tattoos         ....................     ...... 525
A. Formal Legal Protection for Tattoos ......        ..... 525
B. Client Autonomy        ..................        ........ 532
C. Reusing Custom Designs                    .............. 539
D. Copying Custom Designs                    ..............  541
1. Defining Copying      ................       ....... 542
2. Detection & Enforcement          ................. 549
3. The Harms of Copying       ..............     ..... 554
E. Copying Flash          .......................    ..... 557
F. Copying Other Visual Art           ................... 560
III. Explaining Tattoo Norms      ..............      ........... 567
A. Tattoo Culture         .......................    .... 569
B. Tattoo Economics        ......................... 575
1. Norms as Collective Self-Interest ......    ..... 577
2. Norms as Exclusionary Practices ......        ..... 581
IV. Lessons from the Tattoo Industry          ..     ................. 584
A. The Role of Non-Legal Incentives .......          ....... 584
B. Customization & Service       ..............      ...... 587
Conclusion          ...................................... 590
t Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University School of Law.
Thanks to Dave Fagundes, Mike Madison, and Pam Samuelson for helpful
comments. This article also benefitted from discussions at the Intellectual
Property Scholars Conference at Stanford Law School and workshops and col-
loquia at Case Western Reserve University School of Law, University of Akron
School of Law, University of Notre Dame Law School, Wayne State University
Law School, and Whittier Law School. Copyright @ 2013 by Aaron
Perzanowski. Reuse of this article is permitted under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution 3.0 license, the full terms of which are available at
http//creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode.

511

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