84 Minn. L. Rev. 589 (1999-2000)
On Balance: Religious Liberty and Third-Party Harms

handle is hein.journals/mnlr84 and id is 599 raw text is: On Balance: Religious Liberty and Third-Party
Harms
Jonathan C. Lipsont
Introduction  ............................................................................. 590
I.     Defining Religion and the Anxiety of Entanglement .. 595
A. Definitional Exercises .............................................. 597
B. Deference as Definition-The Internal Affairs
Cases ................................                 600
1. The Rule of Deference.       ...................    602
2. The Exceptions-Neutral Principles and Fraud
or  Collusion  ........................................................... 606
a. Neutral Principles ............................................. 607
b. Fraud or Collusion ............................................ 611
C. The Continuum of Deference-Distinguishing
Religious and Commercial Conduct ........................ 615
D. Young and Thomas-Deep Deference Despite
Third-Party Harm     .................................................... 622
1. Young  .................................................................... 623
2. Thom  as  ................................................................. 629
II.    Balancing Harms and the Anxiety of Anarchy ............ 635
A. Strong Protection-Balancing Harms Plus Strict
Judicial Scrutiny  ...................................................... 635
1. The Roots of Balancing-The Religious
Solicitation  Cases  ................................................. 636
2. Strict Scrutiny-A Thumb on the Scale .............. 638
t Assistant Professor of Law, the University of Baltimore School of Law.
I thank for insightful comments and suggestions on prior drafts Judith Olans
Brown, Fern H. Zittler, Angela C. Carmella, Daniel F. Keating, Reverend
Deborah W. Little, Ira C. Lupu, the Honorable Morris E. Lasker, and Douglas
Laycock. Tara Norgard and Kim Fuhrman, of the University of Minnesota
School of Law, and Kevin Corwin, of the University of Baltimore School of
Law, provided valuable editorial and research assistance. For more general
support, I thank my colleagues at the University of Baltimore (which also pro-
vided valuable financial assistance with this project), Joseph Franco, Alexan-
dra Harrison, Dirk Hartog, Tracey Maclin, Patricia Roworth and Karen Tosh.
Last-and not least-I also thank my wife, Kathleen Noonan, for her grace,
patience and good humor.

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