30 Mich. J. Int'l L. 927 (2008-2009)
From Pinochet to Rumsfeld: Universal Jurisdiction in Europe 1998-2008

handle is hein.journals/mjil30 and id is 937 raw text is: FROM PINOCHET TO RUMSFELD:
UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION IN
EUROPE 1998-2008
Wolfgang Kaleck*
I. UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION IN EUROPEAN PRACTICE ................. 931
A .  B elgium   .............................................................................. 932
B .  F rance  ................................................................................ 936
C .  Sw itzerland  ........................................................................ 939
D .  U nited  K ingdom   ................................................................. 940
E .  The  N etherlands ................................................................. 942
F.   Scandinavia   ....................................................................... 945
G .  G erm any  ............................................................................ 949
H .  A ustria  ............................................................................... 953
I.   Sp a in  .................................................................................. 9 54
J.   Sum m ary  ............................................................................ 958
II. PROBLEMS AND OBSTACLES ...................................................... 958
A. Lack of Appropriate International, European Union,
and Domestic Legislation .................................................. 958
B. Presence Requirement and Principle
of  Complem   entarity  ........................................................... 959
C. Practical Problems of Prosecuting
International Crim   es .......................................................... 961
D. Prosecutorial Discretion and Immunity ............................. 962
III. ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MECHANISMS
TO  COMBAT    IMPUNITY   .............................................................. 964
A. Territorial and Personality Jurisdiction: The Case
of the CIA Rendition Flights in Europe ........ ; .................... 964
B. State Accountability: Applying Regional Mechanisms ...... 966
C. Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) and Other
C vil R em edies  .................................................................... 970
*    Wolfgang Kaleck, criminal and human rights lawyer, is co-founder and General
Secretary of the European Centre for Constitutional and Human Rights e.V. (ECCHR) in Ber-
lin. See http://www.ecchr.eu. In 1998, shortly before the Pinochet arrest, the author
participated in the foundation of and has worked since then as a lawyer and spokesman in the
Coalition Against Impunity, a network with the goal of suing former Argentinean military
officers in German courts. Furthermore, he is the lawyer in several universal jurisdiction and
war on terror related cases-including the German cases against the then-U.S. Defense
Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, John Yoo and others for torture-in Germany, Austria, and
France representing victims from, for example, Uzbekistan, China, Mexico and Chechnya.
I would like to thank my research assistants, Cydney Peterson and Ruben Reike, and
Florian Jessberger, Miriam Saage-Maass, Andreas Schiuller, Peter Weiss and the editors for
their helpful comments. Further comments are welcome: Kaleck@ecchr.eu

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