19 Mich. J. Int'l L. 497 (1997-1998)
Does the Emperor Have No Clothes - Enforcement of International Laws Protecting the Marine Environment

handle is hein.journals/mjil19 and id is 511 raw text is: DOES THE EMPEROR HAVE NO CLOTHES?
ENFORCEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAWS
PROTECTING THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
David S. Ardia*
INTR ODUCTION   ...................................................................................... 497
I. THE NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS
PROTECTING THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT .................................. 502
II. THE ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS ............ 508
A.    The Enforcement Of Environmental Agreements
G enerally  ............................................................................. 508
B.   Problems Associated With Extraterritorial Enforcement .... 513
C.    The M arine  Environment ..................................................... 515
III. MONITORING AS THE BASIS FOR EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL
A G REEM ENT S  ............................................................................... 517
IV. EXISTING ENFORCEMENT MECHANISMS IN INTERNATIONAL
M ARINE  LAW  S  .............................................................................. 523
A.   Overview of International Environmental Infrastructure .... 523
B.    The Third United Nations Conference on the Law
of   the  Sea  ............................................................................. 533
V .  A  PROPOSED  SOLUTION   ............................................................... 543
A.   An International Marine Monitoring and
Coordination  Agency  ........................................................... 544
B.   Potential Enforcement Mechanisms .................................... 554
C.   Benefits of an International Marine Monitoring and
Compliance  Agency  ............................................................. 563
C O N CLU SIO N  ......................................................................................... 566
INTRODUCTION
Environmental regulations cannot end at state borders. Because
ecosystems, individual species, and pollution do not respect political
boundaries, there is a growing necessity for international environmental
*  Law Clerk, The Honorable Thomas J. McAvoy, Chief Judge, United States District
Court for the Northern District of New York. J.D., Syracuse University College of Law
(1996); M.S., State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry
(1995); B.S., Clarkson University (1989). I would like to thank Professor David Driesen for
providing many helpful comments.

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