13 Colo. Tech. L.J. 203 (2015)
Algorithmic Harms beyond Facebook and Google: Emergent Challenges of Computational Agency

handle is hein.journals/jtelhtel13 and id is 227 raw text is: ALGORITHMIC HARMS BEYOND FACEBOOK
AND GOOGLE:
EMERGENT CHALLENGES OF
COMPUTATIONAL AGENCY
ZEYNEP TUFEKCI*
IN T R O D U CT IO N  .......................................................................................................... 2 0 3
I. GATEKEEPER ALGORITHMS: THE CASE FOR CONCERN AND
C H A LLEN G ES  ................................................................................................. 2 0 6
A. Algorithmic Harms: Lack of Visibility, Information
Asymmetry, and Hidden Influence ............................................ 207
B. When Big Data Reveals More Than Was Disclosed:
Computational Violations of Privacy  ....................................... 209
II. ALGORITHMIC HARMS THROUGH COMPUTATIONAL AGENCY: Two
C A SE  ST U D IES  ............................................................................................... 2 1 3
A. Algorithmic Harms: Social Movements and the Civic
S p h e re  ................................................................................................... 2 1 3
B. Elections And Algorithmic Harms ........................................... 215
C O N C LU SIO N  ............................................................................................................... 2 1 6
INTRODUCTION
In June of 2014, experiments performed on Facebook users
without their knowledge-a previously little-known topic-became
big news, garnering enormous coverage nationally and internation-
ally. The furor was sparked by a study published in the prestigious
Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences (PNAS). Face-
book's researchers had, according to their abstract, confirmed that
they had shown experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion
via social networks by reducing the number of positive or negative
posts shown to Facebook users by experimentally manipulating us-
ers' algorithmically curated News Feed.1 Facebook employee Adam
D.I. Kramer was the first author; the other authors were academics-
*Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina-School of Information & Library
Sciences.
1. Adam D.I. Kramer, Jamie E. Guillory & Jeffery T. Hancock, Experimental Evidence
of Massive Scale Emotional Contagion Through Social Networks, 111 PROC. NAT'L ACAD. SCI
24, 8788-90 (2014), http://www.pnas.org/content/111/24/8788.full.pdf.+html.

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