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18 J. Consumer Pol'y 1 (1995)

handle is hein.journals/jrncpy18 and id is 1 raw text is: Kenneth R. Lord and Chung K. Kim
Inoculating Consumers Against Deception:
The Influence of Framing and
Executional Style
ABSTRACT. This study examines conditions affecting consumer susceptibility to
advertising deception and educational efforts designed to inoculate consumers
against it. Results show that consumers are best able to detect deception when their
frame of reference (cognitive or affective) is incongruent with the advertisement's
executional style (attribute or emotional). Attempts to inoculate consumers against
deception by providing factual brand comparisons have their strongest effect among
consumers with an affective frame of reference and for emotionally charged ads.
In a recent review of consumer behaviour research and social policy,
Andreasen (1991) concluded that deception on the part of marketers
is not a rare occurrence (p. 465). Researchers have addressed the issue
of deception in advertising from a variety of perspectives over the
years. For example, some recent efforts have elucidated United States
Federal Trade Commission policy (Ford & Calfee, 1986), exposed
such sources of deception as puffery (Marks & Kamins, 1988), incom-
plete comparisons (Shimp, 1978), and implied-superiority claims
(Snyder, 1989), revealed some of the cognitive and behavioural con-
sequences of deception (Searleman & Carter, 1988), and evaluated
such public policy mechanisms as affirmative disclosure (Wilkie,
1982). However, attention to the impact of individual difference and
advertising style characteristics on susceptibility to deceptive com-
munications has been sparse. Andreasen (1991) noted that little
conceptual or empirical attention has been paid to the issue of who
is affected by deception, and points to the importance of establishing
what help consumers need to recognize and avoid marketer decep-
tions. This paper addresses these issues by investigating the proposi-
tion that consumers' susceptibility to advertising deception, and the
effectiveness of education programs in inoculating them against it, are
affected by the way in which the processing task is framed and the

Journal of Consumer Policy 18: 1-23, 1995.
© 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

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