34 J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare 77 (2007)
Incarceration and Unwed Fathers in Fragile Families

handle is hein.journals/jrlsasw34 and id is 513 raw text is: Incarceration and Unwed Fathers
in Fragile Families
CHARLES E. LEWIS, JR.
Howard University
School of Social Work
IRWIN GARFINKEL
Columbia University
School of Social Work
QiN GAO
Columbia University
School of Social Work
Criminal justice policies have resulted in millions of Americans
being incarcerated over the past three decades in systems that pro-
vide little or no rehabilitation. This study uses a new dataset-The
Fragile Families Study-to document poor labor market outcomes
that are associated with incarceration. We find that fathers who
had been incarcerated earned 28 percent less annually thanfathers
who were never incarcerated These previously incarcerated fathers
worked less weeks per year, less hours per week and were less likely
to be working during the week prior to their interview. We also
found that fathers who had been incarcerated were more likely to
depend on underground employment and off-the-books earnings.
Keywords: Earnings, employment, employment probability, ex-
offenders, fathers, incarceration, labor market, offenders, prison,
prison reentry
Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, September 2007, Volume XXXIV, Number 3

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