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42 J. Res. Crime & Delinquency 3 (2005)

handle is hein.journals/jrcd42 and id is 1 raw text is: 



















        VIOLENT LIVES: A LIFESTYLE MODEL

        LINKING EXPOSURE TO VIOLENCE TO

                  JUVENILE VIOLENT OFFENDING

                                          STACEY NOFZIGER
                                                   DON KURTZ



Studies examining the consequences ofiuvenile exposure to violence focus largely on
psychological outcomes and often ignore the ways in which exposure is associated
with deviant peers and juvenile offending. Using data from the National Survey of
Adolescents (NSA), a nationally representative sample ofjuveniles between the ages
of 12 and 17, we examine the relationship between various types of exposure to vio-
lence and violent offending. Based on Hindelang, Gottfredson, and Garofalo's Life-
style model of victimization (1978), the authors argue that exposure to violence is
indicative of a lifestyle of violence. Such a lifestyle makes juveniles susceptible to vic-
timization, witnessing violence, and association with violent peers. The findings dem-
onstrate that these indicators of violent lifestyles in turn act as a riskfactorfor violent
offending.

Keywords:   exposure to violence; lifestyle; routine activities


   Exposure  to violence may take many different forms. Public and political
attention has predominantly focused on the impact violence in the media may
have on juveniles. Although watching  violent media may increase juvenile
and adult aggressive behaviors (Huesmann   et al. 2003), a potentially more
important type of exposure is real-life violence-witnessing violence, hav-
ing violent friends, or experiencing violent victimization. Children in Amer-
ica are at high risk for these forms of exposure to violence, with those in inner
cities at greatest risk. Nearly all children and adolescents in inner cities report
they have encountered firsthand exposure to violence in their homes or com-
munities (Koop and Lundberg  1992; Margolin and Gordis 2000; Purugganan
et al. 2000). Such exposure often begins at early ages. Using a sample of in-

   This project was supported by Grant No. 2002-IJ-CX-0004 awarded by the National Institute
of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Points of view in this docu-
ment are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of
the U.S. Department of Justice. An earlier version of this article was presented at the Midwest So-
ciological Society meetings in April 2003, Chicago, IL.
JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN CRIME AND DELINQUENCY, Vol. 42 No. 1, February 2005 3-26
DOI: 10.1177/0022427803262061
D 2005 Sage Publications
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