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27 J. Democracy 109 (2016)
Ecuador under Correa

handle is hein.journals/jnlodmcy27 and id is 480 raw text is: 

Delegative Democracy Revisited


                    Catherine  M.  Conaghan

Catherine M. Conaghan   is the Sir Edward Peacock Professor of Latin
American Politics at Queen's University, Canada. Her essay Ecuador:
Correa's Plebiscitary Presidency appeared in the April 2008 issue of
the Journal of Democracy.

In  his pathbreaking 1994 essay on delegative democracy in these
pages, Guillermo O'Donnell  identified Ecuador as a member of this
new  species. Delegative democracies formed a problematic class of
regimes-democratic  in a plebiscitarian sense but not particularly liber-
al or representative-that he saw emerging as Latin America moved on
from an era marked by military rule.1 Generals no longer ran things, but
taking their place at the center of power was a new breed of ambitious
civilian presidents. Chosen through free elections, these chief execu-
tives tended to claim a superior grasp of national interests while citing
their wins at the polls and displaying a pronounced impatience-at once
both populist and technocratic-with ordinary political give-and-take
and the institutional restraints imposed by courts, legislatures, and other
agencies of horizontal accountability.
   Whether or not Ecuador wholly fit the description of a delegative de-
mocracy at the time O'Donnell was writing, his unease about the country
would prove prescient. Ecuador had ended seven years of military juntas
and returned to elected, civilian rule in April 1979, making it an early
mover  in the wave of democratizations that was about to sweep Latin
America. Yet Ecuador had trouble finding its way politically as a series
of economic, political, and institutional crises pummeled its young de-
mocracy. In just the eight years between 1997 and 2005, public outrage
at political elites forced no fewer than three presidents from office.
   Riding to victory as a quintessential outsider candidate, a young
economist named Rafael Correa (b. 1963) became president in 2006 un-
der circumstances seemingly ripe for the consolidation of a full-spec-
trum delegative democracy. In much the way O'Donnell had outlined a

             Journal of Democracy Volume 27, Number 3 July 2016
    © 2016 National Endowment for Democracy and Johns Hopkins University Press

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