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2021 U. Ill. J.L. Tech. & Pol'y 387 (2021)
Fahrenheit 2020: Torching the Internet's Library of Alexandria at the Height of a Global Pandemic

handle is hein.journals/jltp2021 and id is 399 raw text is: FAHRENHEIT 2020: TORCHING THE
INTERNET'S LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA
AT THE HEIGHT OF A GLOBAL
PANDEMIC
Stephen Beemsterboer*
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.      Introduction   .........................................................................................388
II.     B ackground    .........................................................................................390
A. The Legal Backdrop for Digital Library Lending .......................390
1. The Economic Rationale Behind Copyright Law..................391
2. The First Sale Doctrine..........................................................392
3. The Fair Use Doctrine ...........................................................394
B.    The Fraught Relationship Between Publishers and Libraries......394
1. The Modern Publishing Landscape .......................................394
2. The Rise of the e-book ..........................................................396
3. Perennial Adversaries............................................................397
C.    Libraries Take Digital Lending into Their Own Hands...............398
1. The Internet Archive and the Open Library ..........................398
2. Enter Controlled Digital Lending ..........................................400
3. The National Emergency Library ..........................................401
III.    A nalysis.................................................................................... . ...404
A .   W hat M  akes  a  U se  Fair?..............................................................413
1. Factor One: Purpose and Character.......................................413
a. Public Benefit / Transformative Use ..............................414
b. Commercial vs. Nonprofit ..............................................415
2. Factor Two: Nature of the Work ...........................................416
3. Factor Three: Amount and Portion of Work Taken...............416
4. Factor Four: Effect on the Market.........................................417
* J.D. Candidate, University of Illinois College of Law, 2022; B.S., Cornell University, 2013. I would
like to thank Professor Paul Heald for teaching me about copyright law and for sharing helpful comments on an
earlier draft of this Note. I would also like to recognize the very hard-working members of this journal. And lest
I forget the usual suspects, many thanks go out to my family and friends for their endless support. I should also
note that my only affiliation with the Internet Archive (as of this writing) is as a longtime fan and user of its
services: spending many an hour watching delightfully outdated public service films (for an exemplar and
personal favorite, see MORE DANGEROUS THAN DYNAMITE (ca. 1930s), https://archive.org/details/more_
dangerous then _dynamite), researching for various schoolwork and pet projects, and uncovering ghosts of
internet past through the Wayback Machine. Lastly, to remove all doubt, opinions and errors in this piece are
entirely my own.

387

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