25 J. Legal Aspects Sport 1 (2015)

handle is hein.journals/jlas25 and id is 1 raw text is: 

Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport, 2015, 25,1-9
http //dx doi org/10 1123/jlas 2014-0024                 Human  Kinetics .Z
@ 2015 Sport and Recreation Law Association                       CASE STUDY

                 Ref, Is This the Final?

           Concussion Issues at the 2014

      FIFA Men's World Cup: A Case Study

                  John   T. Wendt   and  John   J. Miller

    As seen at the 2014 World Cup, concussions can occur in the heat of the moment
    even on the biggest stage of the world. According to World Cup policy, if a who
    suffers a concussion, the game still goes on and their teams have a choice, either
    continue to play a man down or substitute for the injured player. As a result,
    players want to stay in the game and time is of the essence. Yet, many athletes
    do not recognize their symptoms as being the result of a concussion, nor do they
    believe that sustaining a concussion is a potentially grave problem. This case
    study reveals how players react to potentially incurring a concussion as well as
    what international organizations are doing to combat this issue. What are sports
    leagues in the United States and globally doing to educate athletes and coaches
    about concussion symptoms?

    Sport-related concussions have been recognized as a major public health con-
cern of traumatic death and disability on a global basis (Thurman, Alverson, Dunn,
Guerrero, & Sniezek, 1999). According to Doolan, Day, Maerlander, Goforth, and
Bronlinson (2012) not only are the number of athletes taking part in contact and
collision sports worldwide has increase, so has the frequency of sports-related
concussions. As a result, the awareness of the long-term impacts and dangers of
concussions have greatly increased, thereby becoming a considerable issue (Benson,
Meeuwisse,  Rizos, Kang, & Burke, 2011; Persky, 2013).
    Although historically, many people have believed that concussions required a
loss of consciousness (Harmon et al., 2013), such an occurrence is not always the
case (American Academy  of Neurology, 1997; Ellenbogen, Beger, & Hunt, 2010).
What were once referred to as dings, hits, or many other less ominous-sounding
names by athletes are now clearly defined as concussions (Ellenbogen et al., 2010).
However,  identifying the existence of a concussion is a very challenging part of
concussion management   since the signs and symptoms can be unclear as every
concussion is unique (Doolan et al., 2012; Kissick & Johnston, 2005).
    If the presence of a concussion is not detected and the athlete returns to play
prematurely, the athlete may fall into one of three categories of concern: second
impact syndrome  (SIS), a prolonged recovery from sequential concussions (post-
concussion syndrome), or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) (D'Hemecourt,

Wendt (jtwendt@stthomas.edu) is with the Dept. of Ethics and Business Law, University of St. Thomas,
Minneapolis, MN. Miller is with the College of Health and Human Services. Troy University Troy, AL.


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