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10 J. Juv. L. 193 (1986-1989)
Juvenile Extradition: Denial of Due Process

handle is hein.journals/jjuvl10 and id is 199 raw text is: JUVENILE EXTRADITION:
California became the seventh state to enact a juvenile court act in
1903 which provided for separate court jurisdiction over dependent, ne-
glected and delinquent children under the age of 16 years. The age limit
was raised to 18 years in 1909 when a separate juvenile court was estab-
lished. Exclusive jurisdiction over minors was granted in 1913 and con-
current jurisdiction of criminal courts was established for those between
the ages of 18 and 21 years.
The establishment of the juvenile court system was based upon the
belief that early intervention, coupled with a system providing for treat-
ment rather than punishment, would save errant children from a life of
crime. No distinction was made between the status of the offender be-
cause all children were believed to be in need of rehabilitation by the
juvenile court. The format of the juvenile court system was highly infor-
mal in comparison with the adult criminal system, lacking in many of the
procedural safeguards of due process accorded the adult counterpart.
These safeguards were considered inappropriate because the primary
concern was rehabilitation rather than punishment.
The juvenile system underwent its first major revision in 45 years in
1961. Many procedural innovations were added to the rights of minors
under the 1961 Juvenile Court Act,1 including the right of a minor or
parent to be represented by retained counsel, the right of an indigent
minor to be represented by court-appointed counsel when based on alle-
gations of felony misconduct, the right to adequate notice of the charges,
the right to a prompt detention hearing, the right to confidentiality of
hearings, the right to a review hearing in all dependency and neglect
cases, and the requirement that an order changing a disposition by re-
moving a minor from parents' custody or commitment to the Youth Au-
thority be preceded by a noticed hearing. These modifications were
made in the belief that the quality of rehabilitative services would be in-
creased while maintaining the informality of the juvenile courts.
1. See former Welf & Inst. Code §§ 632-634, 676, 729 and 777 (1961).

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