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7 J. Int'l Trade L. & Pol'y 6 (2008)

handle is hein.journals/jitlp7 and id is 1 raw text is: The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at


Journal of International Trade Law
and Policy
Vol. 7 No. 1, 2008
pp. 6-26
© Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/14770020810918165

The European Union vis-d-vis
Brazil and India: future avenues
in selected trade policy areas
Rafael Leal-Arcas
American Society of International Law, Washington, DC, USA
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the potential of partnerships of the European
Union (EU) with two of the so-called BRIC countries, i.e. Brazil and India.
Design/methodology/approach - The scope of analysis will be the EU vis-d-vis Brazil and India,
using two types of trade liberalization: bilateralism/regionalism and multilateralism.
Findings - It is found that Brazil and India want to become more important players; yet, they seem to
lean against old powers (mainly the USA), and tend to focus on south-south regionalism.
Research limitations/implications - The present study provides a starting-point for further
research on the relationship between the European Union and the new leading powers.
Originality/value - This paper offers practical information to anyone interested in the role of Brazil
and India in their relations with the EU, bilaterally/regionally and multilaterally.
Keywords European Union, Brazil, India, International trade, International relations, Agriculture
Paper type Research paper
1. Introduction
This paper aims at understanding the potential of partnerships of the European Union
(EU) with two emergent global actors (the so-called new leading powers (NLP) or BRIC
countries[1]), focusing on international trade law and policy. Although the power base
of these chosen actors (Brazil and India out of the BRIC countries) is their respective
region, there may be specific policy areas in which their influence might be global[2].
With this in mind, the paper raises interesting questions: is the EU an attractive
partner for the new leading powers? Does the EU want cooperation with these two
BRIC countries? What are the characteristics of these partners? What are the EU's
priorities in its foreign trade policy? Which partners should the EU cooperate with in
which policy areas? With which instruments can the EU engage these partners and
how can the EU internal coordination be ensured?
The paper argues that the EU's objective of engaging with Brazil and India is to
establish peace, security, and prosperity in the XXI century. Trade creates economic
ties and generates more welfare; thus it contributes to peace and security (e.g. the EU
integration). The same argument is true multilaterally: before the creation of Doha
Round in 2001, developing and least-developed countries had been marginalized in the
world trading system (Ismail, 2006), which brought with it serious economic
implications. In 2001 in Doha (Qatar), developing countries were promised inclusion in
the world trading system in order to achieve a higher level of justice and equity in the
world. That is why the Doha round is called the development agenda[3]. The argument
is that a more open and equitable trading system[4] brings peace to the world and,

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