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12 J. Int'l Trade L. & Pol'y 4 (2013)

handle is hein.journals/jitlp12 and id is 1 raw text is: The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at



Journal of International Trade Law
and Policy
Vol 12 No. 1, 2013
pp. 4-22
© Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/14770021311312476

Bureaucratic politics,
policy learning, and changes
of antidumping policy and
rules in Japan
Joon-heon Song
School of Business and Commerce,
Tokyo International University, Saitama, Japan, and
Kyoung-joo Lee
College of Business and Economics, Gachon University,
Kyungwon Campus, Seongnam-City, Republic of Korea
Purpose - This paper aims to deepen understanding of the interrelated questions: how Japanese
antidumping policies have been formulated and transformed; what the reasons are for such caution in
adopting antidumping measures; and what patterns can be observed of recent changes in antidumping
policy and legal systems.
Design/methodology/approach - To explain the changes in antidumping policy and rules in
Japan, this paper examines not only political competition among bureaucratic organizations but also
policy learning by bureaucratic organizations and their effects on change in policy preferences and
advancements in the legal system.
Findings - The effects of bureaucratic politics and policy learning not only complexly interact but
also are highly complicated to initiate policy changes in accordance with the maturity of antidumping
legal system. In this case study, the policy learning has led the rival bureaucrats to a consensus to
change antidumping policy and legal system, but the agreement could be a temporal truce that may
easily collapse by political contingencies.
Originality/value - Along with the influences of large-scale economic and political dynamisms, this
paper focuses on two aspects of the policy subsystem to explain those changes: one is political
competition among bureaucratic organizations claiming jurisdiction of antidumping policy; the other
is the effect of policy learning among bureaucratic organizations on changes in policy preferences and
on advancements in antidumping rules.
Keywords Antidumping, Bureaucratic politics, Policy learning, Japan, Bureaucracy
Paper type Research paper
1. Introduction
Antidumping measures have become one of the most important issues in foreign trade
policy. In a world of liberalized trade, with decreasing use of traditional protectionism
instruments such as tariffs, quotas, and voluntary export restraints (VERs), the
significance of antidumping measures has drastically increased in foreign economic
policy over the past decades (Niels, 2000). The fact that members of the World Trade
Organization (WTO, 2012) initiated 4,010 antidumping investigations between 1995
and 2011 highlights the importance of antidumping as an effective policy measures to
address international trade conflicts.

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