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2020 J. Int'l Com. & Econ. 1 (2020)

handle is hein.journals/jice2020 and id is 1 raw text is: 

The EU General Data Protection Regulation:

   An Analysis of Enforcement Trends by EU

                Data Protection Authorities

                           Brian Daigle and Mahnaz Khan


      The  European Union (EU) General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) was
      enacted in May 2016 with a two-year implementation period that concluded in May
      2018. Since then, EU member states and regional-level data protection authorities
      (DPAs) have issued over $500 million in fines. Although EU DPAs issued few
      fines for noncompliance in the first year of implementation, DPAs have
      subsequently acted much more aggressively against noncompliant firms. This paper
      will explore the broad trends in investigation and enforcement across the EU in the
      21 months following GDPR implementation. These trends include a preliminary
      analysis of differences in GDPR enforcement in specific EU member states, the
      GDPR  provisions that are most emphasized in enforcement, and the nature of the
      fines imposed on U.S. and EU-based firms. As of March 2020, the largest fines and
      enforcement actions under GDPR had occurred principally in Western European
      countries, with a split between enforcement against both U.S. and EU firms.

Suggested citation: The EU General Data Protection Regulation: An Analysis of Enforcement Trends by
EU Data Protection Authorities. Journal ofInternational Commerce and Economics. May 2020.

The author(s) would like to thank the two anonymous referecs for their comments on earlicr versions of this paper.

Journal ofInternational Commerce and Economics | 1

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