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15 J. Experimental Criminology 1 (2019)

handle is hein.journals/jexpcrm15 and id is 1 raw text is: Journal of Experimental Criminology (2019) 15:1-28
Officer-involved shootings: testing the effect of question
timing on memory accuracy for stressful events
Louise E. Porter 2   - Justin Ready1 '  Geoffrey P. Alpert 3
Published online: 13 December 2018
© Springer Nature B.V. 2018
Objectives This randomised controlled trial tested the effect of immediate versus
delayed, as well as repeated, questioning on memory retrieval regarding details of
officer-involved shootings.
Methods A sample of 87 police officers experienced active armed offender training
scenarios followed by a memory questionnaire testing their recall and recognition of
details of the scenario. Officers were randomly assigned to one of two experimental
groups. Group 1 completed the questionnaire immediately after the training scenario
and again 2 days later, while group 2 completed the survey 2 days later only.
Results Linear mixed models showed that delayed questioning negatively impacted
officers' recognition of correct details of the incident, but only for details not directly
associated with threat stimuli. This pattern was supported by the free recall data.
Further, officers who were questioned immediately did not experience the same
memory decay over time, showing that early questioning can aid memory retention.
Officers were also better at recognising correct threat-relevant details (compared to
non-threat relevant) that were visual, but the reverse was true for auditory details.
Conclusions We found no support for the position that delay improves officers' mem-
ory. However, rather than finding universal memory decay over time, the interaction
between timing and type of details being recalled revealed a more nuanced picture. This
knowledge assists understanding of the limitations of information provided by officers
under different interviewing conditions.
Keywords Police - Memory - Stress - Interviewing - Shooting
2 Louise E. Porter
Griffith Criminology Institute, Griffith University, Mount Gravatt, Australia
2  School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222, Australia
3  Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of South Carolina, Columbia,

t__ Springer

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