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9 J. E. Asia & Int'l L. 562 (2016)
The 'All Okinawa' Movement: Political and Legal Implications of the Okinawan Protest against the US Bases

handle is hein.journals/jeasil9 and id is 557 raw text is: 

562  Pil Su Jin

                 The 'All Okinawa' Movement:
   Political and Legal Implications of the Okinawan
                   Protest against the US Bases

                                    Pilsu  Jin*

   This essay reviews the 'All Okinawa' anti-base movement, which has entered a new phase
   since November 2014. The Abe administration's coercive measures to proceed with the
   relocation of the US Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to Henoko in Okinawa, have
   aroused strong opposition. Led by Governor Onaga and the All Okinawa Council, the
   'All Okinawa' movement has integrated the civic opinions for opposing the construction
   of a new base at Henoko. Moreover, this movement has pursued the autonomy as a way
   of exercising the right of self-determination. In addition, it contains an ethnic minority
   movement that reestablishes the Okinawan identity in relation to Japan.

   'All Okinawa,' US Base, Anti-Base Movement,  Futenma, Henoko,  Autonomy,
   Identity Politics, Okinawa

1. Introduction: The Emergence of 'All Okinawa'

What  is called the 'Okinawa problem' today manifests itself in the 'base problem.
Generated  by  the occupation of the US  armed  forces in 1945, the vast military
bases in Okinawa  have been  gradually reduced. However,  the political autonomy
of the Okinawan  people regarding  base policy has never been afforded by the US
and Japanese  governments.  With  the schoolgirl rape incident in September 1995
as the direct cause, a massive anti-base movement exploded. Accordingly, the
Special Action Committee  on Okinawa   (SACO)  announced   in April 1996 a plan

*  HK Research Professor at the Institute for Japanese Studies, Seoul National University. B.A./M.A./Ph.D. (Seoul
   N.U.). ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9425-0489. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation
   of Korea (NRF-2008-362-B00006). The author may be contacted at: jpslalala@naver.com / Address: 408 Graduate
   School of International Studies Building, I Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 Korea.
I  R. Eldridge, The Okinawa Base Problem  Today, Nippon.com, Feb. 3, 2012, available at http://www.nippon.com/en/
   in-depth/a00501 (last visited on Sept. 27, 2016).
   DOl: http://dx.doi.org/10.14330/eail.2016.9.2.12

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