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27 J. Crim. Just. Educ. 1 (2016)

handle is hein.journals/jcrimjed27 and id is 1 raw text is: 

Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 2016
Vol. 27, No. 1, 1 18, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10511253.2015.1064982


Student Academic Dishonesty: The

Potential for Situational Prevention



        Tarah Hodgkinson, Hugh Curtis,
        David MacAlister and Graham Farrell




     Approximately one-half to three-quarters of university students commit
     some form of cheating, plagiarism, or collusion. Typical university responses
     are policy statements containing definitions plus punishment procedures.
     This paper collates a portfolio of strategies and tactics that seek to design-
     out, deter, and discourage academic misconduct. It finds many routine tac-
     tics exist, from silence and the use of large halts for major exams, to
     restrictions on electronic devices. Others are less consistently adopted, such
     as splitting lengthy exams in two to discourage washroom-visits where
     cheating takes place. The portfolio of tactics is framed in the context of
     crime opportunity theory and the 25 techniques of situational crime preven-
     tion. It is proposed that more consistent application of tactics focusing on
     environmental design, curricular design, and class management offer signifi-
     cant potential for reducing misconduct. Future research should seek to
     evaluate and enhance such interventions.


                                Introduction

University student academic dishonesty (or misconduct) is the act of misleading
or deceiving others into believing that academic work is original and
independent, when in fact the work belongs to someone else (Davis, Drinan, &
Gallant, 2009; Marsh, 2007). It is a widespread concern, and probably fair to say
that it is a problem at all universities across the world. At least half, and perhaps
as many as three-quarters, of university students in the United States have been
found to engage in academic dishonesty at least once in their undergraduate
careers (Christensen-Hughes t McCabe, 2006; Yee t MacKown, 2009). Similarly,
61% of Swedish university students admitted to copying written material without
sourcing, 40% admitted to fabricating a bibliography, 31% admitted using an
essay bank (online paper mill), and 9% admitted using crib notes or cheat
sheets during examinations (Trost, 2009). Sampling three universities, Lim and
See (2001) found that 89.8% of Singaporean students reported paraphrasing
material without sourcing, 76.4% reported working in groups on individual



Routiedge
   Taylor&FranisGrop  (D 2015 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences

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