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10 J. Common Mkt. Stud. 1 (1971)

handle is hein.journals/jcmks10 and id is 1 raw text is: 



                         By   RONALD INGLEHART

             University  of Michigan  and  University of Geneva


Is nationalism  a declining  force  in Western   Europe?   We   have  argued
that  it is,' deriving  this expectation   from   hypotheses about inter-
generational   changes   in the  socialization  process:  if one's  sense  of
nationality  is formed    relatively  early  in life2 and   tends  to  persist
throughout one's adult years, one would expect that the generation
which   had been  formed   in the era of intense nationalism  preceding  and
during   World   War   I would retain a relatively nationalistic outlook
today,  when   compared with younger groups. By contrast, the age
cohorts  which  have  matured   since 1945  might  be  expected  to be much
less nationalistic, and  perhaps  relatively  ready  to  surrender  some   of
their national  sovereignty  to European political   institutions. They   did
not experience   the feelings of fear and hostility which  surely must  have

  * I am indebted to Jacques-Rene Rabier, Director-General of the European Communities
Information Service, for the cooperation which he extended at every stage of the research reported
  I See Ronald Inglehart, 'An End to European Integration?' The Anwrican Political Science
Review, Vol. 61, no. 3 (March 1967).
  2 See, for example, Jean Piaget, Le d6veloppeient chez l'entimt de l'idde de patric et de
relations avec l'&tranger', Buictin Internationiale de Science Sociale, UNESCO, 1961, PP 3, 6o, 621.
Piaget concludes that the concept of nationality is fully developed by age 14. Adelson and
O'Neil converge in finding that between the ages of 13 and 15, the individual normally develops
a sense of political community. See Joseph Adelson and Robert O'Neil, 'Growth of Political
Ideas in Adolescence: The Sense of Coniuntnity', Journal of Personality and Social PsycholoeQy, 4,
3(July-December 1966), pp. 295-100. I less and Torney find that, in the U.S., the development of
'diffuse support' for political authorities has largely been coniplcted by puberty-somse additional
development may take place in adolescence, but the rate of change hass alreadv tapered off by age
13 or so. See Robert less and Judith Torney with David Jackson, The Dielopment of Basic
Attitudes and Values Toward Goiernunent, Part I (Chicago, 196), p. 380; cf. Gustav Jahoda,
'Children's Ideas about Country and Nationality'. British Journal of Educationial Psychol,y,
June 1963. The work of Erik Erikson also suggests the existence of a critical age range, during
which one's basic political identity is formed-with relatively little chance of protund miodifica-
tion thereafter. Erikson places the development of social identity during puberty and adolescence.
See Erik II. Erikson, Childhood and Society (New York: Norton, 1963).

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