33 J.L. Pol'y & Globalization 1 (2015)

handle is hein.journals/jawpglob33 and id is 1 raw text is: 


Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization                                                       www~iiste.oig
ISSN 2224-3240 (Paper) ISSN 2224-3259 (Online)
Vol.33, 2015                                                                                         IISTE


             Cyberterrorism: A Comparative Legal Perspective

                          Mu'azu Abdullahi Saulawa*   Junaidu Bello Marshal 2
           1. Faculty of Law, Umaru Musa Yar'adua University, P.M.B. 2218. Katsina State, Nigeria
           2. Faculty of Law, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B 2486. Sokoto State, Nigeria
                                  * Email- muazu.abdullahis 4)gmail.com

Abstract
The paper focuses on cyberterrorism and a comparative legal perspective with a view to examine the
cyberterrorism as a concept as well as its definition. The revolution of development of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) has changed society to be a point where advances in programming computer
and intelligence software operates in a higher processing capacity. The uses of desktop or laptops computers are
leading the society to a time where or when cyber used to perpetrate various act of offences. The paper analyses
legal perspective that introduced the Cybercrime Convention in Europe in relation to cyber terrorism and the
opening to other Member States, while Economic Community for West African States (ECOWAS) issues a
Directive to Member States to adopt enabling laws so as to combat the practices of cybercrime in relation to
cyber terrorism. The paper argues that Nigerian Cybercrime Act 2013 is an established law that addresses the
endemic practice of cybercrime and provides for cyber terrorism. Further, the paper examines the Nigerian
financial regulators like the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), the Economic Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)
and other Units mandated to curb the money laundering and combating the financing terrorism and other
financial institutions related crimes. The paper relies on primary and secondary sources of data and the analysis
is descriptive in nature. The paper will proffer recommendations and conclusions for effective measures for
proper implementation and enforcement.
Keywords: Cyberterrorism, definition of cyberterrorism, Relevance of cyberterrorism in cyberspace,
Comparative Legal Perspective

1.      Introduction
The paper focuses on cyberterrorism and a comparative legal perspective. The number of threats posed by
cyberterrorism has completely and overwhelmingly attracts global attention. The security of environment and the
ICT industry are not safe, the variety use of sophisticated cyber terrorist electronically equipment's hacking into
computers that control dams, air traffic control system, endangering the lives of millions and the nation's security.
Yet despite all predictions of cyber-global acceptance no single example of real cyber terrorism has been
recorded. 1
         The cyberterrorism threat is real, with the constant used of infrastructures and most of such in western
countries is networked through computers; the potential cyberterrorism is, to be sure very alarming. Nothing can
be further from the truth, hackers, although not motivated by the same objective that inspires terrorist that have
demonstrated individuals can gain access to sensitive information and to execute an operation which is crucial.
Terrorists, at least in theory could thus follow the hackers' lead and broke into government or private computers
cripple, damage or at least disable financial sector, military and economies. 2
         The growing dependence of societies today on ICT has open a window form of vulnerability, giving
terrorists the opportunity to approach targets that would otherwise be utterly assailable such as national defence
system and air traffic control system. The more technologically developed country is, the more vulnerable it
becomes to cyber-attacks against its infrastructures. 3

2       Definition of Cyberterrorism
In defining cyberterrorism, a number of contributions have been used, according to Federal Bureau of
Intelligence (FBI):
                 ... terrorism includes the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to
                 intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in
                 furtherance of political or social objectives.
Cyberterrorism is further defined as the:
                 the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems,
                 computer programs, and data which result in violence against noncombatant targets by

1 Gabriel Woimann, Cyberterrorism How Real is the Threat? , United States Institute of Peace, Special Report 119,
December 2004, at p. 2.
2  Ibid.
3  Ibid.
4 Code of Federal Regulations, 28 C.F.R.Section 0.85 (July 2001): 51.

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