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93 Int'l Lab. Rev. 643 (1966)
Urban Employment in Brazil

handle is hein.journals/intlr93 and id is 657 raw text is: Urban Employment in Brazil
Manuel DI1 GUES JUNIOR1
Development, urbanisation and manpower
T HE URBAN POPULATION of Brazil amounted in 1960 to nearly 32.5 mil-
lion persons, or 46.3 per cent. of the country's total population.
In 1940 it represented only 21.6 per cent., while by the next census (1950)
it had risen to 30.8 per cent. The rate of increase of the urban population,
which was already high between 1940 and 1950 (7.1 million persons or
44 per cent.), rose still further between 1950 and 1960 (50.7 per cent.),
while that of the rural population dropped considerably (3.6 million
persons or 10 per cent. from 1940 to 1950, against only 4.4 per cent. from
1950 to 1960).2
This accelerated increase in the growth of the country's cities has
inevitably led to a change in the composition of the labour force. In the
first place the influx of rural workers into the cities has taken the propor-
tions of a veritable mass migration. Secondly, as a direct result of the
growing urban population, there has been greater diversification of
activities in the urban areas, giving rise to new trades or occupations.
In 1960 Brazil had a population of 48.8 million aged 10 years and
over, distributed by branch of economic activity roughly as follows:
12.3 million in agriculture, 2.9 million in industry and 5.3 million in
tertiary (service) occupations; 2.2 million people were engaged in other
occupations and 26 million were not economically active.3 One striking
fact is apparent from these figures: the heavy burden of inactive persons
on the economy, amounting to approximately 53.5 per cent. of the total,
that is a slightly higher proportion than in 1950 (53.2 per cent.) and much
greater than in 1940 (49.2 per cent.). Another important feature is the
slow rate of increase in the active population in non-agricultural sectors:
in 1940, persons engaged in industry and service occupations amounted
I Director of the Latin American Social Sciences Research Centre.
2 Censuses of 1940, 1950 and 1960. Unless otherwise indicated, statistics used in this
study are drawn from the official publications of the Brazilian Institute for Geography and
Statistics.
3 Serviqo Nacional de Recenseamento, Brazil: VII recenseamento geral do Brasil.
Censo demogrdfico. Resultados preliminares, Srrie especial, Vol. 2 (Rio de Janeiro, 1965).

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