85 Int'l Lab. Rev. 325 (1962)
The Social Integration of Indigenous Populations in Brazil

handle is hein.journals/intlr85 and id is 339 raw text is: The Social Integration
of Indigenous Populations in Brazil
by Darcy RIBEIRO 1
Scattered over a vast area of Brazil, more particularly in the
Amazon region and in the eastern part of the states of Matto Grosso
and Goids, live some 100,000 forest-dwelling Indians whose racial
characteristics, customs and languages diferentiate them into more
than 140 tribal groups. Some of these are completely cut of from
civilisation and live in remote areas without communication to the
outside world ; others have just begun to establish contacts with the
civilised population, towards which they have yet to shed their traditio-
nal hostility ; still others, mainly in the south-western areas of the
country, are intermingling to an increasing extent with the rest of the
population. While these Indians represent only a minimal fraction of
the total population figure-which exceeds 60 million-nevertheless
their integration into the life of the nation, with the same advantages
and opportunities as other citizens, raises serious human problems
which have been exercising the Brazilian authorities for many years.
The following article is divided into two parts : in the first part,
following a fairly detailed description of the pacification methods
applied by the Indian Protection Service 2, the legal status of the
Brazilian Indian, the problems which his integration into the national
I Prof. Darcy Ribeiro was attached to the Indian Protection Service, as
an anthropologist, for several years. He was then appointed Chief of the
Service's Study and Planning Department. He was the founder of the Indian
Museum in Rio de Janeiro, and is at present a life member of the National
Council for the Protection of the Indians, a government body, in recognition
of his services to the cause of integration of Brazilian indigenous peoples.
He was also a member of the former I.L.O. Committee of Experts on Indi-
genous Labour.
' The Indian Protection Service (I.P.S.) was established on 20 June 1910,
as a branch of the Ministry of Agriculture, and regulations governing- its
operation were issued on 15 December 1911. Since 1943 the Service has been
attached to the National Council for the Protection of the Indians, a body
set up in 1939 and entrusted with all matters pertaining to aid for and
protection of the Indians, study of their languages, customs and traditions,
and the recommending of appropriate measures for achieving the objectives
of the I.P.S. as well as of the Council itself. For further details see I-L.O. :
Indigenous Peoples : Living and Working Conditions of Aboriginal Popula-
tions in Independent Countries, Studies and Reports, New Series, No. 35
(Geneva, 1953), pp. 476 ff.

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