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27 Int'l Crim. Just. Rev. 5 (2017)

handle is hein.journals/intcrm27 and id is 1 raw text is: 




Article
                                                                   International Criminal justice Review
                                                                   2017, Vol. 27(l) 5-18
                                                                   @ 2016 Georgia State University
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Individual Liberties, and                                          DOI: 10.1177/1057567716680401
                                                                   journals.sagepub.com/home/ic
Crime Rates: An Assessment                                         OSAGE

of   40 Countries




Jay  Albanese



Abstract
The  balance between   crime control  methods  and  individual liberties is always problematic,
creating tension, because in order to investigate crime, and adjudicate and punish offenders, it
is necessary to make reasonable intrusions into the liberty of citizens. This study uses data from
40  countries to examine the crime  control measures  (police per capita and conviction rates)
that reflect government  investments in criminal justice apparatus to control crime and crim-
inals, as well as the use of these crime control measures through government  intervention in
the lives of its citizens (formal citizen contacts with police, prosecution rate, and detention
rate), to examine their impact on crime victimization rates (homicide rates and crimes included
in the international crime victim survey). The purpose is to examine whether these government
interventions have any impact on  crime rates across countries, controlling other independent
variables that might help to explain any observed relationships among these variables (such as
measures  of civil liberties, democracy, human development,  available information and com-
munications  technologies, political rights, corruption perceptions, education, economic free-
dom,  freedom  of the press, and prosperity).


Keywords
comparative criminal justice, crime control, social and political factors, crime rates, homicide rates


   The balance  between crime  control methods and individual liberties is always problematic,
creating tension, because in order to investigate crime, and adjudicate and punish offenders, it is
necessary to make reasonable intrusions into the liberty of citizens. These intrusions include formal
police contacts with citizens, prosecution, conviction, and detention.
   Besides individual liberty interests, another constraint on these criminal justice interventions into
the lives of citizens is the resources available. That is, a country's financial capacity to fund police,
courts, and corrections impacts its ability for effective crime control and its impacts on individual


'Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Jay Albanese, Virginia Commonwealth University, 923 West Franklin St, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.
Email: jsalbane@vcu.edu

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