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10 Inonu U. L. Rev. 1 (2019)

handle is hein.journals/inonu10 and id is 1 raw text is: 



Miinil ('niwriti iukuk Faki-ltPi Derisi - M01417D 10(1) 1-15 (2019)


   TURK HUKUKUNDA YABANCI MAHKEME KARARLARININ TENFUwMr'3 MUTEKABNILNYET
      HARTINA BAK LANMASININ AVRUPA WSAN HAKLARI SOZLE HMES4V.6(1) ACISINDAN
                                               DEK ERLEND1RMLMESM


THE EVALUATION OF THE RECIPROCITY AS A CONDITION FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS IN
            TERMS OF ART. 6(1) OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN TURKISH LAW

                                                                                                DOI: 10.21492/inuhfd.481887

Ilyas ARSLAN
Yalova Oniversitesi, Hukuk FakiiltesiMilletlerarasyOzel HukukABD, Dr. Aratirma Gorevlisi ((ilyas.arslan243@gmail.com) ORCID: 0000-0002-1567-2630


Makale Bilgi

Gbnderilme: 12/11/2018
Kabul: 07/01/2019


Anahtar Kelimeler

Miitekabiliyet,
YabancyMahkeme
Kararlaryin Tenfizi,
Avrupa Msan Haklary
Sizle~nesi,
Hakkaniyete Uygun
Yargy.anma Haky





Article Info

Received: 12/11/2018
Accepted: 07/01/2019


Keywords

Reciprocity,
Enforcement of
Foreign Judgments,
European Convention
on Human Rights,
Right to a Fair
Hearing


Ozet
5718 sayili Milletlerarasi Ozel Hukuk ve Usul Hukuku Hakkinda Kanun (MOHUK) m.54 uyarnca yabanci
mahkeme kararlannan tenfizi iqin kar~llanmasi gereken $artlardan biri clan mtitekabiliyet, objektif olarak tenfiz
yargilamasinan taraflannan menfaatlerini gozetmedigi gibi, boyle bir $artin aranmasinda tenfiz devietinin ne tfir
menfaatinin oldugu da tam olarak anla~llamamaktadir. Devletin tamamen psikolajik bir saikle 6ngrmi$ oldugu
bir $art clan mtitekabiliyet, taraflar arasinda davalinn lehine bir e~itsizlige yol aqmaktadar. Zira MOHUK
m.54'te yer alan diger tenfiz $artlanyla birlikte ele alindiginda, diger tenfiz $artlan vasitasiyla yeterince
korunabilecek clan davaliya, boyle bir $artla tenfiz yargilamasinin akibetini ciddi bir $ekilde etkileyen ve geregi
olmayan bir koruma saglanmaktadir. Bu nedenle, salt tenfize konu karann men~eini esas alan boyle bir $artin
tatbiki, insan haklan hukuku aqlslndan da ciddi problemlere yol aqabilecek mahiyettedir. Ozellikle davacinan
Avrupa insan Haklan S~zlemesinde (AIHS) yer alan haklan dikkate alindiginda, sdz konusu $artln tatbiki,
yabanci kararla ortaya qikan 6zel hukuka ili$kin bir haktan tenfiz devletinde de yararlanmak isteyen davacinn
A-IS m.6(l)'deki hakkaniyete uygun yargilanma hakkinan ihlaline neden olabilir. Bu qallmada, rmitekabiliyetin
tatbikinin AHS m.6(l)'i gerqekten ihlal edip etmeyecegi veya hangi hallerde boyle bir ihlalin ortaya qlkabilecegi
incelenmeye qallllmautlr. Bu kapsamda, mitekabiliyetin tatbiki suretiyle taraflaran Al-IS m.6(l)'de giivence
altina alman hakkaniyete uygun yargilanma hakkinan ihlali iddialannan Avrupa insan Haklan Mahkemesi
(AHM) tarafindan nasil bir degerlendirmeye tabi tutulabilecegi AIHM iqtihatlan l1lganda analiz edilmeye
qall~llma~tlr.

Abstract
The reciprocity, which is one of the conditions that must be met for the enforcement of foreign judgments
pursuant to Art.54 of Turkish Code on Private International Law and International Civil Procedure numbered
5718 (CPIL), does not objectively take into account of the interests of the parties to the enforcement proceedings,
nor it is completely uncertain what kind of interest the enforcing state has in seeking such a condition for a
foreign judgment to be enforced. The reciprocity, which can be regarded as a condition prescribed by the state
with a purely psychological motive, leads to an inequality in favour of defendant between the parties to the
enforcement proceedings. Because, when taken together with other conditions for enforcement under Art.54 of
CPIL, the defendant, whose interests can be adequately protected via other conditions, is provided with
unnecessary protection which seriously affect the outcome of enforcement proceedings. For this reason, the
application of such condition to enforce a foreign judgment, which is purely based on the origin of judgment in
question, may also cause serious problems in terms of human rights. Especially considering the claimant's right
to a fair trial pursuant to Art.6(l) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), the application of this
condition may cause a violation of that right of the claimant, who wants to enjoy a private right based on a
foreign judgments in the enforcing state. In this study, it has been examined whether the application of
reciprocity as a condition to enforce a foreign judgment could indeed violate Art. 6(1) of the ECHR or in which
cases such a violation may occur. In this context, it has been tried to analyze how the European Court of Human
Rights (ECtHR) assess whether Art. 6(1) of the ECHR was actually violated by the Turkish courts via application
of reciprocity in the light of case law of the ECtHR.


* Bu makale, Istanbul Oniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstittisti Ozel Hukuk Doktora Program kapsaminda Doq.Dr. Emre ESEN'in
danimanliginda hazirlanan ve 28.9.2018 tarihinde savunulan 'Avrupa Msan Haklary Stizle~nesinin Milletlerarasy Ozel Hukuka Etkisi_ adh
doktora tezi esas alinarak hazirlanlmitir.
Tirk Hukukunda YabancyMahkeme Kararlariyi Tenfizinin Miitekabiliyet -Lrtia Bafllanmasyi/Ai Avrupa Msan HaklaryS5zlenesi M.6(1) Afyydan
Deilerlendirilmesi                                                                                                            1

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