14 Int'l J. Police Sci. & Mgmt. 20 (2012)
Assessing Risk of Patriarchal Violence with Honour as a Motive: Six Years Experience using the PATRIARCH Checklist

handle is hein.journals/injposcim14 and id is 24 raw text is: Assessing risk of patriarchal violence with
honour as a motive: six years experience
using the PATRIARCH checklist
Henrik Belfrage*, Susanne Strandt, Linda Ekman§ and
Anna-Karin Hasselborgt
t(Corresponding author) Department of Health Sciences, Section for Criminology,
Mid Sweden University, 851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden. Tel: +46 708 778388;
e-mail: henrik.belfrage@miun.se
tDepartment of Health Sciences, Section for Criminology, Mid Sweden University.
§Swedish National Police.
Submitted 27 February 2011, revision submitted 8 August 2011, accepted
15 August 2011
Keywords: honour-based violence, risk assessment, police, PATRIARCH

Henrik Belfrage PhD is Professor of Criminol-
ogy at Mid Sweden University and Director of
Research at Sundsvall Forensic Psychiatric
Susanne Strand PhD is Associate Professor of
Criminolgy at Mid Sweden University.
Linda Ekman MSc is Analyst at Stockholm
County Police.
Anna-Karin Hasselborg MSc is Lecturer in
Criminolgy at Mid Sweden University.
Few crimes are as complicated to investigate and
understand as honour-based crimes. The planning
and execution often involves multiple family
members, usually without personality disorders or
major mental disorders, and can include mothers,
sisters, brothers, male cousins, uncles and grand-
fathers whose actions are by many, themselves
included, considered as good or necessary. Invest-
igations often have to be carried out trans-
national,  involving  many   authorities  and
sometimes several countries. This paper describes
the process f developing an evidence-based check-
list which has been used for six years in Sweden

as an aid for law enforcement and social author-
ities in cases with suspected risk for honour-based
violence. Data from 56 recent cases are presented
and discussed.
An honour killing is usually defined as the
murder of a family member (most often a
woman or girl) due to the belief of the
perpetrators that the victim has brought
dishonour upon the family (e.g. Araju &
Carlson, 2001; Welchman     &   Hossain,
2005). The perceived dishonour is most
often the result of one of the following
behaviours, or the suspicion of such behavi-
ours: (a) dressing in a manner unacceptable
to the family or community; (b) wanting to
terminate or prevent an arranged marriage
or desiring to marry by own choice; (c)
engaging in sexual acts outside marriage, or
even because of a non-sexual relationship
perceived as inappropriate; or (d) engaging
in homosexual acts (eg, Chesler, 2009).
Honour-based violence can also be within
social groups, where the victim has violated

Internationa 1 rnad of Polic
Scienc an d Manlageent,
Vol. 14 No. 1, 1012, pp. 20-29.
D01: 10).135(/ijps.2(

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