8 Indon. L. Rev. 256 (2018)
Restrictions of the Rights of Freedom of Religions: Comparison of Law between Indonesia and Germany

handle is hein.journals/indolawrev8 and id is 255 raw text is: 

Indonesia Law Review (2018) 3: 256-276
ISSN: 2088-8430 | e-ISSN: 2356-2129



       A.A.A. Nanda Saraswati,* Setiawan Wicaksono,* Ranitya Ganindha,*
                                and  M.  Choirul  Hidayat*

* Faculty of Law, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Article Info

Received: 22/02/2017  | Received in revised form: 12/08/2018 | Accepted: 7/11/2018

Corresponding  author's e-mail: anandasaraswati@yahoo.com

The rights offreedom of religion and beliefs are constitutionally guaranteed, both in Indonesia and Germany.
However, the right of freedom of religion is not unlimited. This paper aims to identify and analyze (1)
Why  there is the right of freedom of religion is restricted; (2) What product of the law is that regulates
restriction on the right offreedom of religion in Indonesia and Germany; and (3) What purpose do Indonesia
and Germany  have in restricting the right of freedom of religion? This paper uses a normative research
method  that references legislation and takes a historical and comparative approach. The restriction of
freedom of religion exists to protect the fundamental right or freedoms for every individual to avoid chaos.
The restrictions on freedom of religion in the Indonesian Constitution are stated in Article 28 of the 1945
Constitution; Article 73 of Law No. 39 Year 1999; Article 18 of Law No. 12 Year 2005; and in PNPS No. 1
Year 1965. While Germany does not set explicit restrictions, the environment comes from the level ofthe Act:
namely, Article 166-167 of the Criminal Code. In Indonesia, public order is defined as conformity ofjustice in
consideration ofmorality, religious values, and security in a democratic society. Meanwhile, Germany defines
public order as the protection of society based on the principles of balance and tolerance, in that individual
freedoms must be balanced with other people's fundamental rights, although this also means that a person's
idea of divinity must be excluded.
Keywords:  restrictions, freedom of religion, Indonesia, Germany, public order, human rights

Hak atas kebebasan beragama dan berkeyakinan mendapatkan jaminan konstitusional yang sangat kuat,
baik di Indonesia maupun Jerman. Hanya saja, hak atas kebebasan beragama tersebut bukanlah tanpa
batas. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis (1) Mengapa ada pembatasan terhadap
hak atas kebebasan beragama? (2) Produk hukum apa yang  mengatur pembatasan terhadap hak atas
kebebasan beragama  di Indonesia dan Jerman? Dan (3) Apa tujuan Indonesia dan Jerman melakukan
pembatasan  terhadap hak atas kebebasan beragama? Tulisan ini merupakan tulisan normatif dengan
pendekatan perundang-undangan,  historis dan komparatifAlasan mengapa ada pembatasan terhadap
hak atas kebebasan beragama adalah untuk melindungi hak fundamental atau kebebasan dasar setiap
individu, dalam rangka menghindari terjadinya chaosyang dapat mengganggu pencapaian tujuan bersama
Indonesia secara spesifik mencantumkan pembatasan kebebasan beragama dalam Konstitusiyaitu Pasal 28
]UUD  NRI 1945, Pasal 73 Undang-undang Nomor39 Tahun 1999, Pasal 18 Undang-undang Nomorl2 Tahun
2005, dan PNPS Nomor 1 Tahun 1965. SedangkanJerman tidak secara eksplisit mengatur pembatasannya,
namun  diatur di tingkat Undang-Undangyaitu Pasal 166-167 Criminal Code. Tujuan Indonesia danjerman
melakukan pembatasan  adalah untuk menjamin pengakuan serta penghormatan atas hak dan kebebasan
orang lain sehingga dapat menciptakan public order atau ketertiban umum. Di Indonesia ketertiban umum
diartikan sebagai kesesuaian keadilan dengan pertimbangan moral, nilai-nilai agama, keamanan, dan
ketertiban umum dalam suatu masyarakatdemokratis. SedangkanJerman mengartikan ketertiban umum
sebagai perlindungan masyarakat berdasarkan asas keseimbangan dan toleransi dimana kebebasan itu
harus diimbangi dengan hak-hak dasar orang lain, selain itu juga bahwa ide/gagasan mengenai ketuhanan
bagi seseorang dikesampingkan.
Kata kunci: pembatasan, kebebasan beragama, Indonesia, Jerman, ketertiban umum, HAM

DOI: http://doi.org/10.15742/ilrev.v8n3.510

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