47 Int'l Migration Rev. 3 (2013)

handle is hein.journals/imgratv47 and id is 1 raw text is: 


Bridges and Barriers: Religion and

Immigrant Occupational Attainment

across Integration Contexts'

Phillip Connor
The Pew Forum  on Religion 6- Public Life

Matthias Koenig
University of Gottingen 6 Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Eth-
nic Diversity

    This  article advances knowledge  about context-dependent  impacts  of
    religion on immigrant  structural integration. Drawing  on theories of
    inter-generational immigrant  integration, it identifies and spells out
    two  context-dependent  mechanisms   through  which  religion impinges
    upon  structural integration - as ethnic marker  prompting   exclusion
    and  discrimination, or as social organization providing access to tangi-
    ble resources. The propositions are empirically tested with nationally
    representative data on occupational attainment in three different inte-
    gration contexts which  vary in religious boundary configurations and
    religious field characteristics - the United States, Canada, and Wes-
    tern Europe.  Using   data from  the  US  General  Social Survey,  the
    Canadian   Ethnic Diversity Survey, and  the European   Social Survey,
    the article analyzes indirect and direct effects of religious affiliation
    and  participation on occupational attainment among   first and second
    generation  immigrants. The   analyses find only limited evidence  for
    the assumption  that in contexts with strong religious boundaries (such
    as Western  Europe  and, to a lesser extent, Canada), immigrants  face
    religious penalties in structural integration. By contrast, the analyses

'Both authors have contributed equally to this article. Please address correspondence to
pconnor@pewforum.org or mkoenig@uni-goettingen.de. Earlier drafts of this article were
presented in seminars at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, the University of Bern,
and the University of Eichstatt as well as the annual meetings of the Population Association
of American (2012) and the American Sociological Association (2012). The authors are
particularly grateful to Nancy Foner, Jeff Reitz, Andreas Wimmer, Robert Wuthnow, and
three anonymous reviewers for comments and advice on earlier drafts of this article. Phillip
Connor acknowledges funding by the Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project;
Matthias Koenig is grateful for support provided by the University of Toronto during his
time as Hannah Arendt Visiting Professor for German and European Studies.

C 2013 by the Center for Migration Studies of New York. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1111/imre.12012

IMR  Volume  47 Number  1 (Spring 2013):3-38  3

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