45 Int'l Migration Rev. 3 (2011)

handle is hein.journals/imgratv45 and id is 1 raw text is: 


             INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW



 What Explains the Increasing Trend

 in  African Emigration to the U.S.?

 Kevin J. A. Thomas
 Pennsylvania State University

    In this study, data from the U.S. State Department on visas issued
    abroad  and information  from  other sources are used to  examine
    trends in African emigration to the U.S. The results suggest that, on
    average, moderate  increases in African  Gross Domestic   Product
    between 1992  and 2007  had a buffering effect on emigration trends.
    Yet, emigration to the U.S. increased much faster from the poorest
    than wealthiest countries in Africa. Contrary to expectations, larger
    emigration increases were found in Africa's non-English than English-
    speaking countries. Despite the increasing overall trend, however, crit-
    ical differences were observed in the impacts of specific types of flows.
    For example, overall trends were driven by increases in Diversity Visa
    migration, refugee movements, and the migration of immediate rela-
    tives. However, significant declines were observed in employment-
    related emigration from Africa to the U.S. The results further suggest
    that impact of trends in African fertility, urbanization, and phone use
    are circumscribed to specific contexts and types of migration flows.
    The findings, therefore, provide an empirical basis for concluding that
    the dynamics of African migration to the U.S. are becoming increas-
    ingly more complex.



INTRODUCTION

The  surge in African migration to Europe and North America toward the
end  of  the twentieth century  is well documented   in the  literature
(Hoggart and Mendoza,  1999; Owusu,  1999; Arthur, 2000; Van Moppes,
2006;  Carling, 2007). Not  surprisingly, these trends have engendered
increased scholarly attention to the determinants of these movements.
Much   of the discourse on contemporary  African emigration, however,
revolves around  an elucidation of its determinants (e.g., Hatton and
Williamson, 2003; Adepoju,  2004, 2006)  or give special focus to issues
such as the migration of skilled professionals (Reynolds, 2002; Eastwood
et al., 2005; Hagopian et al., 2005). In doing so, the current discourse

D 2011 by the Center for Migration Studies of New York. All rights reserved.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2010.00837.x


IMR Volume  45 Number  1 (Spring 2011):3-28 3

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