10 Int'l Migration Rev. 3 (1976)

handle is hein.journals/imgratv10 and id is 1 raw text is: 


A   Schema for Indirect

International Migration

by Frank A. Barrett*


                     A  MIGRATION SYSTEM

   The  earth is a closed system for human migration. Within the system
all terrestrial areas of the world have been claimed by political states.
Except for boundary disputes the universal exclusiveness of these territo-
rial rights means that mankind is divided into political spaces so that one
may  not migrate to another territory without the receiving-state's consent.
Furthermore  in  numerous  countries citizens may not even  emigrate
without governmental  consent. These controls mean that extra-territorial
migration  is now a tightly-controlled flow. Since migration regulations
vary in time and space the migration flow is often indirect i.e., migrants
may  move  to countries of second or third choice because the country of
their first choice rejects their application. Indirect migration also occurs
when   an immigrant  is dissatisfied with his choice and moves again.
Migration models such as Lee's and Mangalam's do not focus on this type
of occurrence  (1966; 1970). Zelinsky has hypothesized that there is a
mobility transition which parallels the demographic transition (1971). As
a result of modernization man  becomes  increasingly more mobile. A
consequence  of this is that mobility becomes  more  complex  as the
combinations  and  permutations of movements   between countries in-
creases.
   If migration  is thought  of as a closed system delimited by  the
parameters of the earth then the following diagram provides a framework
(Figure 1). Migration terminology is relative. Whether the migrant is an
immigrant  or an emigrant depends on  the spatial focus of the observer.
But in absolute terms the country of birth is a permanent reference point
for all future movements. Also when the 'prime' country i.e., the receiving
country  that the study focuses upon, is identified then two reference
points are established. The bulk of contemporary immigration is direct
from the country of birth to the 'prime focus receiving country.' Migrants
whose  aspirations are not satisfied and decide to return to their home
country can be classified as direct re-migration. Such a return forms an
inner loop system within the larger system. For the purposes of this paper

*Frank A. Barrett, Associate Professor of Geography, Department of Geography, York
University, Toronto.


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