87 Iowa L. Rev. 235 (2001-2002)
An Adverse Employment Action--Not Just an Unfriendly Place to Work: Co-Worker Retaliatory Harassment under Title VII

handle is hein.journals/ilr87 and id is 247 raw text is: An Adverse Employment Action-NotJust
an Unfriendly Place to Work: Co-Worker
Retaliatory Harassment Under Title VII
ChristopherM. Court
I.    INTRODUCTION  ..................................................................................... 236
II.   BACKGROUND: RETALIATION CLAIMS AND TTLE VII ............................ 237
A. SCOPE OFPROTECTION UNDER TTLE VII .......................................... 237
B. ELEMENTS OFA TTLE VII RETALIATION CLAIM ................................ 240
C. ACTIVrTIES CONSIDERED TO BEADVERSE EMPLOYMENTACTIONS
UNDER THE NARROW  VEW  .............................................................. 241
D. ACTIVITIES CONSIDERE) TO BE AD VERSEEMPLOYMENTACTIONS
UNDER  TiE BROAD  VEW  ................................................................. 243
III.  CO-WORKER RETALIATION AS AN ADVERSE EMPLOYMENT ACTION ........ 245
A. THE BROAD-INTERPRETA TION CIRCUiTS ALLOWRETALIATION
CLAIMS BASED ON CO-WORKER RETALIATION ................................... 246
B. THE NARROW-INTERPRETATION CRCUITS DO NOT ALLOW
RETALIATION CLAIMS BASED ON CO-WORKER RETALIATION .............. 251
C. AIN TERMED    E I  TER PRETA TION BY TIE FOURTH CIRCUIT ........... 252
IV.   CO-WORKER RETALIATION SHOULD BE RECOGNIZED BYALL
CIRCUITS AS AN ADVERSE EMPLOYMENT ACTION ................................... 254
A. NEGLIGENTEMPLOYERS SHOULD BEHELD LIABLE FOR
RETALIATORYACTIONS OF CO-WORKERS .......................................... 254
B. CO-WORKER RETALIATION CAN CONSTITUTE ANADVERSE
EMPLOYMENTAC  ION  .................................................................... 256
V.    CONCLUSION  ........................................................................................ 260

235

J.D. Candidate, 2002, University of Iowa College of Law. I thank my wife, Jodi, for her loving
support and patience, and my family for their guidance and encouragement.

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