89 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1227 (1994-1995)
Issue 4

handle is hein.journals/illlr89 and id is 1247 raw text is: Copyright 1995 by Northwestern University, School of Law        Printed in U.S.A.
Northwestern University Law Review                                VoL 89, No. 4
ARTICLES
REFLEXIVE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW
Eric W. Orts*
I. INTRODUCrON .......................................... 1229
II. TRADITIONAL STRATEGIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL
REGULATION ............................................ 1235
A. Command-and-Control and Its Critics .............. 1235
B. Market-Based Environmental Regulation ........... 1241
HI. A THEORY OF REFLEXIVE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW                 ...... 1252
IV. THE EMERGENCE OF REFLEXIVE ELEMENTS IN
CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ........................ 1268
A. Reflexive Aspects of Market-Based Environmental
Regulation   ..........................................   1269
B. The National Environmental Policy Act ............. 1272
C. Enforcement Policies and Sentencing Standards in
Environmental Law ................................. 1275
1. Environmental Auditing Policy .................. 1275
2. Environmental Prosecution Policy ............... 1278
3. Environmental Sentencing Guidelines ........... 1281
D. Voluntary Government-Sponsored Programs ........ 1284
V. THE EUROPEAN Eco-MANAGEMENT AND AUDrr
SCHEME ............................................... 1287
A. Description and Analysis .......            .............. 1289
1. Voluntary Participation .......................... 1290
2. Industrial Enterprises ............................ 1294
3. Site-Based Process ............................... 1296
4. Initial Environmental Review .................... 1298
5. Environmental Programs ........................ 1299
* Nelson Peltz Term Assistant Professor of Legal Studies, The Wharton School, University
of Pennsylvania. B.A., Oberlin College, M.A., New School for Social Research; J.D., University
of Michigan; J.S.D., Columbia University. The Reginald H. Jones Center for Management Pol-
icy, Strategy, and Organization provided funding for this research. I am grateful for comments
from Tom Dunfee, Susan Freiwald, Kinnan Goleman, Michael Herz, Paul Kleindorfer, Jim
Krier, Howard Kunreuther, Bill Laufer, and John Parkinson. Richard Shell and Aidan Synnott
gave helpful comments at early stages of drafting. I benefited from presenting versions of the
paper to my colleagues at Wharton and to faculty at the University of Texas. Any errors are
mine. I thank Natalia Bragilevskaya, Tamara English, and Rae Hall-Goodman for secretarial
support, and Julie Berkun, David Brady, Marco Gabriele, Steve Ross, and Tanuja Varaprasathan
for research assistance. Special thanks to my wife, Janet.

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