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87 Nw. U. L. Rev. 57 (1992-1993)
Public Interest, Private Income: Conflicts and Control Limits on the Outside Income of Government Officials

handle is hein.journals/illlr87 and id is 77 raw text is: Copyright 1992 by Northwestern University, School of Law    Printed in U.S.A.
Northwestern University Law Review                            Vol. 87, No. 1
PUBLIC INTEREST, PRIVATE INCOME:
CONFLICTS AND CONTROL LIMITS ON
THE OUTSIDE INCOME OF
GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
Beth Nolan *
I.  INTRODUCTION    ...........................................   58
II. BACKGROUND ........................................            62
A. An Overview of Conflict of Interest Regulation ........    63
B. An Overview of Outside Income Limits ...............       66
C. A Brief History of the Prohibition on Salary
Supplementation  .....................................   67
III.  CONFLICTS  ...............................................   70
A. Conflicts Theory and Outside Income .................      71
1. The Ends of Government Conflicts Regulation .....     71
2. The Means of Government Conflicts Regulation ...      81
3. Citizen Government and the Functioning Revolving
D oor .............................................   84
B. Existing Limits on Outside Income ....................     88
1. Salary Supplementation ...........................    88
2. Moonlighting and Daytripping: Other Outside
Earned  Income  ...................................  107
3.  G ifts  .............................................  114
4. Outside Financial Interests ........................ 116
C. Recapping the Conflicts Principle ..................... 117
IV.  CONTROL   .................................................   118
A.   Introduction  .........................................  118
B. Congress and Control ................................ 119
1. The Power of the Purse ........................... 120
2. The Constitution and Control ..................... 127
3. How Congress Should Protect its Control Interests. 132
C. The Executive and Control ........................... 138
• Associate Professor of Law, The National Law Center, George Washington University. Ab-
bie Baynes, Cynthia Farina, Eric Greenberg, Tom Morgan, Bob Peroni, Todd Peterson, Peter
Raven-Hansen, Roger Schechter, Josh Schwartz, Lynda Guild Simpson, Richard Simpson, Janis
Sposato, and Kate Stith provided valuable comments on earlier drafts of this Article, and I am
grateful for their insight and their help. I thank Jim Power, '92, who provided excellent support,
ideas, and collaboration through primary research assistance, and Terri Bowman, '93 and Grace
Shin, '94, who also provided excellent research assistance.

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