103 Nw. U. L. Rev. 1097 (2009)
Iterative Federalism and Climate Change

handle is hein.journals/illlr103 and id is 1103 raw text is: Copyright 2009 by Northwestern University School of Law                        Printed in U.S.A.
Northwestern University Law Review                                              Vol. 103, No. 3
Articles
ITERATIVE FEDERALISM AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Ann E. Carlson*
INTRO D U CTION   ...........................................................................................................  1097
I.   ENVIRONMENTAL    FEDERALISM   .......................................................................... 1103
II.  ITERATIVE  FEDERALISM  SCHEMES ...................................................................... 1107
A.   M otor  Vehicle Emissions Standards .......................................................... 1109
B.   Lessons for  Federalism   ............................................................................. 1128
C.   Cap-and-Trade  Schem  es ........................................................................... 1141
D .  Federalism  and  R G Gl ............................................................................... 1152
III. ITERATIVE FEDERALISM AND SUBSTANTIVE OUTCOMES ..................................... 1158
C ON CLU SION   ..............................................................................................................  1160
INTRODUCTION
Since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, the U.S. government
has not only repudiated the agreement, but has enacted no comprehensive
legislation to reduce carbon dioxide and other emissions that scientists
agree with near unanimity are warming the globe.' 2009 may see signifi-
Professor of Law, UCLA School of Law, and Faculty Director, Emmett Center on Climate Change
and the Environment. I thank Rick Abel, Bill Buzbee, John Dembach, Dan Farber, Cheryl Harris, Sean
Hecht, Doug Kysar, Gia Lee, Jerry Lopez, Jennifer Mnookin, Hiroshi Motomura, Mary Nichols, Craig
Oren, Mike Schill, Clyde Spillenger, Kirk Stark, Mike Vandenberg, Steve Yeazell, and participants at
workshops at Berkeley Law School and UCLA School of Law for extremely helpful comments on ear-
lier drafts; Elizabeth Lee and Louis Sloniker for wonderful research assistance; UCLA School of Law
for providing research funds; and the unbelievably able research staff at UCLA's law library. I also
thank Tom Cackette and Mary Nichols of the California Air Resources Board for their technical exper-
tise and generous help.
I See INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE, CLIMATE CHANGE 2007: SYNTHESIS
REPORT: SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS (2007), available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/
ar4/syr/ar4_syrspm.pdf. The Bush Administration not only repudiated the Kyoto Protocol, see United
Press Int'l, Bush Defends Rejection of Kyoto Treaty, NEWSMAX.COM, Mar. 30, 2001, http://archive.
newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/3/29/164418.shtml, it also vigorously opposed legal efforts to
force the federal government to regulate carbon emissions under the Clean Air Act, see Massachusetts v.
EPA, 549 U.S. 497 (2007); Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under the Clean Air Act, 73 Fed.
Reg. 44,354, 44,354-55 (July 30, 2008) (to be codified at 40 C.F.R. ch. 1) (seeking comment more than
a year after the Massachusetts v. EPA decision to advance the public debate and whether to regulate
rather than to make a policy decision by the EPA). The Obama Administration has proposed new na-

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