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6 Int'l J. Soc. Sci. Stud. 31 (2018)
Individualism-Collectivism as the Dimension Distinguishing the Western from the Eastern Culture

handle is hein.journals/ijsoctu6 and id is 675 raw text is: 

                                                                       International Journal of Social Science Studies
                                                                                       Vol. 6, No. 7; July 2018
          Famne                                                            ISSN  2324-8033  E-ISSN  2324-8041
                                                                                Published by Redfame Publishing
                                                                                    URL: http://ijsss.redfame.com

  Individualism-Collectivism as the Dimension Distinguishing the Western

                                    from the Eastern Culture

                                        DaYeon  Her', HyunGyung  JOO2
 Department of Psychology, Miami University, Ohio, USA
 2Department of Graduate and Professional Studies, California State University, Sacramento, CA, USA
 Correspondence: DaYeon Her, Department of Psychology, Miami University, Ohio, USA.

 Received: May 31, 2018       Accepted: June 18, 2018       Available online: June 22, 2018
 doi:10.11 114/ijsss.v6i7.3324        URL:  https://doi.org/10. 111 14/ijsss.v6i7.3324

Individualism (IND)-collectivism (COL) has been the most popular dimension separating the West from the East. As
the recent findings relating to IND-COL by national and ethnic groups become divergent, however, some investigators
are challenging IND-COL  as the most representative framework dividing into the West and the East. For this reason,
focusing on some  issues that are supposed to cause inconsistent findings regarding IND-COL, it requires making
IND-COL   investigations examined and, in turn, elaborated. In the context of supporting the elaboration, this review
tries to provide some suggestions as follows. First, it is necessary to analyze and set up the concept of IND-COL
precisely. Second, cultural psychologists need to elaborate instruments and introduce social-ecological variables,
cultural products, and qualitative approach. Third, there need to diversify the sampling target. Fourth, future research
requires specifying the sampling target more specifically. Fifth, IND-COL studies need to solve the issue due to the
level of analysis.
Keywords:  individualism (IND), collectivism (COL), Americans, East Asians, cultural psychology
1. Introduction
Individualism (IND)-collectivism (COL) has held the top spot among representative dimensions distinguishing the West
from the East for many years (Schwartz, 1990; Triandis, 2004; Triandis & Gelfand, 1998). In general, IND assumes that
individuals are independent of one another whereas COL supposes that groups bind and obligate individuals (Hofstede,
1980). As such, individualistic culture supports a view of self as self-directed, autonomous, and separate from others
and focuses on discovering and expressing differences among members (Santos, Varnum, & Grossmann,  2017; Zha,
Walczyk, Griffith-Ross, Tobacyk, & Walczyk, 2006). Conversely, collectivistic cultures emphasize mutual obligations,
harmonies, and expectations based on statuses and give priority to in-group goals rather than personal goals (Schwartz,
1990; Triandis, 2004).
So  far, a substantial body of research showed that IND-COL,   which  reflects distinctly contrasting worldview,
influenced various components   of individuals and organizations. Specific components  can be  self-construals,
personality, creativity, locus of control, communication, conversational style, well-being, help-seeking, and workplaces
(Kim  et al., 1996; Hofstede, 2006; Markus & Kitayama, 2010; Merkin, 2018; Sandoval & Lee, 2006; Spector et al.
2001; Wated  & Sanchez, 2015; Zha et al., 2006). To be more specific, arguing sociocultural backdrop of personality,
Kim  et al. (1996) showed that IND-COL influenced self-construals which, in turn, was correlated with conversational
styles. Analyzing on data collected from managers in twenty-four nations, Spector et al. (2001) also found that
IND-COL   showed  a substantial relationship with an internal locus of control, and, subsequently, the results at the
ecological level coincided with the previous research supporting the salutary effect of internal locus of control on
well-being. Besides, Sandoval and Lee (2006) revealed that collectivist norms incite individuals to reduce differences as
soon as possible and facilitate more interdependencies than individualist ones do and, consequently, there would be
more common   help-seeking in collectivist organizations, compared with individualist ones.
However,  some recent findings have shown that individualistic-collectivistic difference between Americans and East
Asians,  who  respectively represent the  West  and  the  East, was  somewhat   divergent (Benet-martfnez  &
Karakitapoglu-aygin, 2003; Matsumoto,  Weissman,  Preston, Brown, &  Kupperbusch,  1997; Oyserman,  Coon,  &
Kemmelmeier,  2002). As a good example, Oyserman  et al. (2002) performing meta-analysis found that the effect size


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