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1 APTO [1] (1957)

handle is hein.journals/ijotcc1 and id is 1 raw text is: 



    The AP'TO  Journal will be an organ  of opinion. It
will appear  bi-monthly. Contibutions  may  be contro-
versiel, out of step with current trends or our obvious
editorial preferences. le  want   original thinking or
descriptions of  experiences that  will stimulate new
ideas. An  article may be  for  or against psychiatric
treatment; it may   illustrate a special technique  or
service; it may be a commentary on the community  or a
brief discussion of  a  particular facet of crime and
    We  are seeking,  in effect, articles in miniature,
from  400 to 600  words  in length. One  will have  to
achieve  this with an almost  superhuman  restraint and
the cutting out of pet phrases. The result should be a
forthright statement of the author's views.
    The AP'1O  Journal is called into being by the fact
 that though we are spending fantastic sums and exerting
 enormous efforts in combatting crime, criminal statis-
 tics are steadily mounting.  We  are losing  the fight
 against crime and we want  to know  why. We  want the
 opinions of informed responsible persons why  all our
 measures are not being effective.
    We are losing ground in spite of the fact that mostof
 the battles for enlightenment of forty years ago have
 been won. Psychiatry is deeply entrenched in our social
 system. Education is universal and progressive principles
                                      continued an peag 4

Melitta Schmideberg, M.D.



    Serious offenders are fundamentally uncooperative,
 unwilling and reluctant to change. In his introduction
 to Aichom's  book  WAYWARID   YOU'Til  Freud  himself,
 and others that followed, insisted that a  therapeutic
 method for the difficult patient must differ fundamentally
 from that employed with law-abiding ones.
    The  primary aim of treating serious offenders is to
 socialize them. Itherefore, in addition to the work in the
 consultation room, the therapist must evaluate the en-
 vironment and life situation of the patient and forge into
 tools of treatment as many elements in them as he can.
 lie does this by organizing, coordinating, and allocating
 different and sometimes contrasting roles to these ele-
 ments. lie utilizes for this purpose what he already finds
 in the environment, and he attempts to fill in any ele-
 ments that are lacking.
    Elements  in the environment mnd life situation of the
 airnt,  tien, become what we migit cdll art rparrnrs of
            ,  the Iterapist griliig and mini ipularini   it
     -r i he --
                                      coninued on poge 3

  Edward   Glover, M.D.

    In taking up the question of psychoanalytic trestmeat,
it must be remembered  that we speak of pure psychosaly-
si,  by which  is meant the classical Freudian technique
built up on the experience of psychoneuroaes andetiologil
cally equivalent disorders, e.g. some sexual inhibitions.
In the first place the general conclusion may  be stated
that if psychoanal yais were to be applied secundum artess
to delin quency, only a few selected caes would ultimate-
ly qualify for inclusion in the category of psychoanalytic
treatment. No  doubt  psychoanalytac  priasaplea are fre-
quently applied in general psychotherapy,  but that does
not necessarily  constitute a psychoanalysis, nor should
it be described as auch. I have rarely come  across  true
completed psychoanalysis  in criminology.
    There  is no doubt that in the more serious cases of
delinquency occurringafterthe latency period, the peculiar
nature of the transference and the conditions under which
the analysis must be carried out with true criminal psycho-
Paths, organized criminals, recidivists, and institutional-
ized  criminals necessitate modifications in the classical
Freudian  technique  which  most  certainly prejudice the
'pure' analytic status of the treatment. This fact has one
important  consequence,  viz., that as analysis is rarely
brought  to completion in cases  of delinquency, psycho-
analytic researches on  delinquency are rarely completed,
or   indeed very  illuminating, certainly as regards the
pathological process.
     I  need  hardly quote  here  the throughly deserved
 strictures passed by the ortho-psychochiatrist and crimin-
 ologist Ben  Ka   man  (1) on the abscence  of organized
 work  on  criminology on the  part of psycholoanalyst.,
 a  criticism which has been  very temperately expressed
 by  Carroll (2) when he  describes many  psychoanalytic
 case  studies of delinquency  as  partial reports of an
 intriguing case encountered in the course of preoccupying
 practice.  From  my  own  editorial experience I would
 have said that in Britain for one clinical paper offered on
 delinquency  there are at least twenty written by social,
 educational and  general psychologists; and, at that, the
 clinical paper  is usually the  work of  a nonanalytical
 psychiatrist using frequently psychanalytical concepts of
 the most  dilute variety. The truth is that psychoanalysis
 has  ac uired much  more  resti e in criminology than is
   jtified by the amount of actual work it has done in the
   ield. Apart from a few pioneering studies and some frag-
 mentary records mostly of non-criminal cases its influence
 is largely indirect, through the percolation to the field of
 delinquency  of  some  metapsychological generalizations
 on  infantile development, unconscious  mechanisms   and
 institutions, unconsciously motivated behavior.
     In sum,  the uses of psychoanalysis  in research and
  in methods  of prevention far outweigh its uses  in pure
  form as a method of treating pathological delinquency.
             -  -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -
  (1) Kurpman,  B. Proceedings  of the 2nd Contress, In-
      ternational Association   of Criminology.'   (Paris:
      Presses Universitaires de France, 1950, p. 73)
  (2) Carroll, 1). Ord., p. 215.

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