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9 Int'l J. Educ. L. & Pol'y 131 (2013)
Reforming the Legal Status of Teachers in Poland

handle is hein.journals/ijelp9 and id is 131 raw text is: 

Reforming the Legal Status of Teachers in Poland

Urszula Markowska-Manista*

I.    Which categories of teachers are distinguished in your country?

Teachers working in state schools follow a precisely defined path of professional promotion and a
salary range connected with that path. Particular levels of professional promotion are determined by
the fulfilment of appropriate conditions. The Teacher's Charter (Karta Nauczyciela)' lists conditions
necessary to obtain the successive levels of teachers' professional promotion under the Polish legal

In Poland the Teacher's Charter defines the rule by which a person who has not yet obtained one of
the stages of promotion established by this statute, on the day their employment contract commences
obtains the entry level of a ,,trainee teacher.

The Charter identifies the following stages of promotion for teachers:

- Trainee teacher,
- Contract teacher,
- Nominated teacher,
-  Certified teacher.                                                                            131

The Polish law allows to employ a teacher granting a higher level of professional promotion than the
initial level of a trainee teacher. The level of a contract teacher is granted to academic teachers who have
at least three years' employment history at a higher education institution, or persons with at least five
years' employment history and significant professional achievements. The level of a nominated teacher
may be granted to academic teachers who, beginning their employment at a teacher training centre,
already have a degree and at least three years' employment history at a higher education institution.2

In 2013 the Ministry of National Education introduced new regulations defining the procedure of
teachers' professional promotion. They have been adjusted to the new regulations concerning the
substitute care system. The legally binding promotion procedure is defined in the order of the Ministry
of National Education of 1 March 2013 on obtaining professional promotion levels by teachers (Law
Journal. pos. 393), which entered into force on 27 March 2013. The introduction of this regulation was
necessary due to exclusion of teachers employed in public educational care centres and adoption-care
centres from the scope of provisions of the Teacher's Charter.

The legal basis of professional promotion is regulated by:

- The statute of 26 January 1982 The Teacher's Charter
-  The Minister of National Education and Sport Order of 1 December 2004 referring to obtaining the
   levels of professional promotion by teachers.

   Urszula Markowska-Manista PhD, Maria Grzegorzewska Academy of Special Education Faculty of Pedagogical
   Science, Warsaw, Poland. umarkowska@aps.edu.pl
   Point no. 15 has been prepared in cooperation with Marta Ponikowska, MA (Educational Research Institute,
1   http://www.prawo.vulcan.edu.pl/przegdok.asp?qdatprz=akt&qplikid=2
2   More: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1217/Poland-TEACHING-PROFESSION.html

IJELP - 2013 - ISSUE 1-2

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