2010 Int'l Bus. L.J. 365 (2010)
Sources of Energy Law in Africa and International Law

handle is hein.journals/ibuslj2010 and id is 373 raw text is: Altide CANTON-FOURRAT* et Monesty Junior FANFIL**
Africa; Energy; Energy policy; Harmonisation; International Law; Natural resources; Oil and gas
production; Sovereignty

L'histoire du droit africain est d'une grande complexit6
compte tenu de la grande vivacit6 des sources.' La diversit6
des r6gimes juridiques qui se sont crois6es aux confins des
rbgles traditionnelles africaines et du droit positif solidifie les
structures juridiques cardinales desquelles le droit africain
peut pr6tendre puiser ses sources.
L'interit tant strat6gique qu'6conomique que suscitent les
ressources 6nerg6tiques est A l'origine des difficult6s
auxquelles est confront6 le continent africain dans
I'etablissement de son droit 6nerg6tique. En vue de
l'installation  de  leur  ressortissant, les  Puissances
coloniales ont tout d'abord eu recours A la signature de
diff6rents trait6s et d'alliances de commerce avec les chefs
indighnes.2 Le Professeur Rosenberg3 rappelle A juste titre
que ces trait6s avaient pour but, non pas la protection des
int6r~ts des indigbnes, mais d'obtenir une preuve opposable
A d'autres puissances coloniales 6ventuelles. La France a
sign6 diff6rents trait6s avec les chefs indighnes de certains
pays d'Afrique en vue de I'exploitation, sans aucune
contrepartie, de leurs ressources 6nerg6tiques. Le trait6
sign6 avec le S6n6gal le 26 octobre 1881 assurait aux
Frangais la libert6 d'installation en vue d'exploiter les
nombreuses mines d'or du pays. Dans ce contexte, les
colons pouvaient s'6tablir partout o6 ils le jugeaient
opportun. La seule condition 6tait la possession d'une
autorisation d'exploiter sous forme de concession d6livr6e
* Enseignant-chercheur, Centre des Collectivit6s Territoriales (CECL), Uni-
versit6 de Pau et des Pays de I'Adour.
** Directeur de I'ISHEJ - Institut Supbrieur Libre des Hautes 6tudes Jur-
idiques, Paris - ancien Fellow A l'UNU-lAS, Tokyo.

The history of African law is very complex given the
multiplicity of its sources. The diversity of legal regimes
that have traversed African traditional rules and posi-
tive law strengthen the legal structures from which the
cardinal African law claims to draw its sources. The
complexity of the subject is rich when it comes to
navigating the African energy legal system.
The strategic and economic interests that generate
energy resources are source of difficulties that the
African continent faces in establishing its energy law. In
order to settle their citizens, the colonial powers signed
various treaties and trade alliances with tribal leaders.
Professor Rosenberg rightly observes that these trea-
ties were not intended to protect the interests of the
natives, but to obtain evidence against any future
colonial powers. France signed various treaties with
the tribal leaders in some African countries to exploit
their energy resources without any consideration
whatsoever. The treaty with Senegal on October 26,
1881 guaranteed France the freedom to settle and to
exploit the many gold mines in the country. In this
context, the colonists could settle in any area they
chose. The only condition was to have authorisation to
exploit under a concession granted by the King of
France (art.7). The Kassana Treaty signed on Novem-
ber 25, 1823 with the leaders of Western Sudan
countries entrusted to France the exclusive exploita-
tion of gold mines of those countries. The treaty
asserts that:

RDAI/IBLJ, N04, 2010

365

@ 2010 Thomson Reuters (Legal) Limited and Contributors

LES SOURCES DU DROIT DE L'ENERGIE EN AFRIQUE
ET LE DROIT INTERNATIONAL
SOURCES OF ENERGY LAW IN AFRICA AND INTERNATIONAL LAW

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