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70 ILR Rev.: J. Work & Pol'y 3 (2017)

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W hile overt expressions of racial and gender bias in U.S. workplaces
       have declined markedly since the passage of the original Civil Rights
Act and  the creation of the Equal Employment  Opportunity  Commission  a
half century ago  (Eagly and  Chaiken  1993; Schuman,   Steeh, Bobo, and
Krysan 1997; Dobbin  2009), a steady stream of research indicates that pow-
erful, if more  covert forms of bias persist in contemporary  workplaces
(Greenwald   and  Banaji  1995;  Pager, Western,  and   Bonikowski  2009;
England  2010; Heilman  2012). In line with this research, high rates of indi-
vidual and class-based lawsuits alleging racial and gender discrimination sug-
gest that many   employees  perceive workplace   discrimination to be  an
important, continuing employment   problem  (Hirsh 2009).
   Hence,  to ensure workplace  equity, prevent legal claims of discrimina-
tion, and/or  rectify past and potential problems of bias, employers have
implemented   a growing array of organizational policies and practices aimed
at  reducing  discrimination and  increasing inclusion. Sometimes   these
efforts are voluntary; other times they  are driven by  specific mandates
assigned to firms by courts as part of verdicts or settlements in cases involv-
ing charges of discrimination. Given the millions of dollars spent on making
and  monitoring such changes, surprisingly little evidence exists on the effi-
cacy of various policies and practices adopted by organizations to address
the problems   and  to capture the  benefits of having a demographically
diverse workforce. And even less evidence is available on the conditions that
may  moderate  the impact of these policies and practices.

*PAMELA S. TOLBERT is the Lois S. Gray Professor of ILR and Social Sciences, and Professor in the
Department of Organizational Behavior at Cornell University. EMILIO J. CASTILLA is the NTU Professor of
Management at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Correspondence can be directed to the authors
at pain.tolbert@cornell.edu and ecastilla@mnit.edu.

                      ILR Review, 70 (1), January 2017, pp. 3-15
                 DOI: 10.1177/0019793916675336. ( The Author(s) 2016
                         Journal website: ilr.sagepub.comn
              Reprints and permissions: sagepub.comn/journalsPennissions.nav

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