35 Hum. Rts. Q. 817 (2013)
Slavery in Europe: Part 1, Estimating the Dark Figure

handle is hein.journals/hurq35 and id is 837 raw text is: HUMAN RIGHTS QUARTERLY
Slavery in Europe:
Part 1, Estimating the Dark Figure
Monti Narayan Datta* & Kevin Bales**
The estimation of the dark figure for any crime (the number of actual
instances of a specific crime committed minus the reported cases of that
crime within a population) has primarily rested on the ability to conduct
random sample crime surveys. Such surveys are based on the assump-
tion that victims experience crimes that are discrete, time-bound, and of
relatively short duration. The crime of enslavement, however, presents a
special challenge to estimation because it is of indeterminate duration. This
challenge is compounded by the fact that victims of slavery are also often
isolated by the stigma linked to sexual assault, or a sense of shame over
their enslavement. Using a unique dataset, based in part on the random
sample surveys of Julia Pennington et al. (2009), and extended through a
process of extrapolation, this paper estimates the numbers of victims of
slavery and human trafficking for thirty-seven countries in Europe. These
* Monti Narayan Datta is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Richmond.
He received his Ph.D. from UC Davis, his MPP from Georgetown University, and his B.A.
from UC Berkeley. His current book project, forthcoming with Cambridge University Press,
focuses on the consequences of anti-Americanism. He is also working on several projects
on human trafficking and modern day slavery with Free the Slaves and Chab Dai.
** Kevin Bales is Professor of Contemporary Slavery at the Wilberforce Institute for the Study
of Slavery and Emancipation (WISE), at the University of Hull, UK. He was Co-Founder
of Free the Slaves, the US Sister organization of Anti-Slavery International and is Emeritus
Professor of Sociology at Roehampton University in London. He also serves on the Board
of Directors of the International Cocoa Initiative. His book Disposable People: New Slavery
in the Global Economy published in 1999, was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize, and has
now been published in ten other languages.
We thank Julia R. Pennington, Wayne A. Ball, Ronald D. Hampton, and Julia N. Soulakova
for their guidance in using their data, and Fiona de Hoog (PhD student, Wilberforce Institute
for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation) for her help in collecting data on reported cases
of slavery and trafficking from European governments.
Human Rights Quarterly 35 (2013) 817-829 V 2013 by Johns Hopkins University Press

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