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17 Hum. Rts. Q. 170 (1995)
More Murder in the Middle: Life-Integrity Violations and Democracy in the World, 1987

handle is hein.journals/hurq17 and id is 180 raw text is: HUMAN RIGHTS QUARTERLY

More Murder in the Middle:
Life-Integrity Violations and
Democracy in the World, 1987
Helen Fein*
Current US foreign policy goals put great stress on extending democracy,
and US legislation-never systematically enforced-has banned aid to gross
violators of human rights for two decades, making exceptions for aid which
benefits needy people.
Gross violations of human rights which are criminalized in international
law include genocide, extrajudicial executions, and torture. These viola-
tions are labeled herein as violations of life-integrity.
Based on a coded content analysis of Amnesty International Reports for
1987 and Freedom House rankings, this article will examine the relation-
ship between life-integrity violations and freedom in 145 states during 1987
and will probe two alternate hypotheses. Our findings support the second,
which asserts that there will be more conflict mobilized and incentives for
repression-i.e., worse violations of life integrity-as democracy is ex-
tended before it is fully institutionalized (More Murder in the Middle). This
article further examines the effects of ethnic discrimination, war, develop-
ment, and inequality (and the linkages among them) on life-integrity
violations, and considers the implications for research and policy.
Since the end of the Cold War, democracy has gained new ground in
many states and has become a renewed object of US foreign policy in the
Clinton Administration. The sterile and ideological debate over the prece-
dence, linkage, or priority of social and economic rights versus political and
* I am grateful to Prof. Herbert F. Spirer (University of Connecticut) for his statistical advice
on the data on development and inequality and to my research assistants, Jason Wittenberg
and Robert Hancke, for tabulations and graphs.
Human Rights Quarterly 17 (1995) 170-191 01995 by The Johns Hopkins University Press

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