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57 Howard L.J. 573 (2013-2014)
The Brand of Inferiority: The Civil Rights Act of 1875, White Supremacy, and Affirmative Action

handle is hein.journals/howlj57 and id is 587 raw text is: ESSAY
The Brand of Inferiority: The Civil Rights
Act of 1875, White Supremacy, and
Affirmative Action
ADERSON BELLEGARDE FRANQ0IS*
INTRODUCTION             ................................. 574
I. PASSAGE OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1875... 575
A. The Bill in the Senate     ....................... 575
B. The Bill in the House      ....................... 578
C. The Final Compromised Bill       .................. 579
II. HOUSE AND SENATE DEBATES OVER THE
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1875           ................... 581
III. THE COUNTER NARRATIVE TO WHITE
SUPREMACY IN THE 1875 CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
D EBA  TE S..............................................  587
CON  CLU  SION   ................................................  595
I cannot willingly accept anything less than my full measure of
rights as a man, because I am unwilling to present myself as a can-
didate for the brand of inferiority . . .. If I am thus branded, the
country must do it against my solemn protest.
The purpose of education . . . is to create in a person the ability
to look at the world for himself to make his own decisions, to say
to himself this is black or this is white, to decide for himself
whether there is a God in heaven or not. To ask questions of the
* Associate Professor of Law and Supervising Attorney for the Civil Rights Clinic, How-
ard University School of Law. I am thankful to Douglas Quzak (HUSL 2013) and David Huynh
(HUSL 2014) for their invaluable research and drafting assistance. I am also thankful to the
editors of the Howard Law Journal, particularly Richard Carlton and Crinesha Brooks, who
showed me more patience than I deserved or had any right to expect. Last but not least, I am
grateful to Parish Kian and Shahrzad for making time for me to write.
1. 2 CONG. REc. 4784 (1874) (statement of Rep. James T. Rapier).
2014 Vol. 57 No. 2

573

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