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40 Howard L.J. 641 (1996-1997)
Codification or Castration? The Applicability of the International Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Racial Discrimination to the U.S. Criminal Justice System

handle is hein.journals/howlj40 and id is 649 raw text is: Codification or Castration? The
Applicability of the International
Convention to Eliminate All Forms
of Racial Discrimination to the
U.S. Criminal Justice System
I.  Introduction  ............................................  642
H. Blacks Have Historically Appealed to International
Bodies for Vindication of Basic Human Rights ......... 643
III. An Overview of CERD, Focusing on Its Criminal
Justice Provisions and U.S. Reservations,
Understandings and Declarations ....................... 648
IV. Institutionalized Racism in the Criminal Justice System
Violates The Letter and Spirit of CERD ............... 655
A. The Sentencing Disparity Between Crack and
Powder Cocaine   ....................................  658
1. The 100-to-1 Quantity Ratio .................... 659
2. Disparate Racial Impact ........................ 664
B. Infliction of Police Brutality Against Blacks Violates
the Letter and Spirit of CERD ..................... 670
1. Racism and Prejudice ........................... 672
2. Unfettered Police Discretion .................... 673
3. Police Code of Silence .......................... 675
4. Inadequate Disciplinary Measures .............. 675
5. Ineffectiveness of Current Remedies ............ 678
a. Limitations of Federal Private Damage
Rem  edies ...................................  678
b. Limitations on Seeking Criminal
Convictions in State Courts ................. 680
V. The U.S. Must Demonstrate a Seriousness of Purpose in
Eradicating Racial Discrimination in its Criminal Justice
System   ..................................................  681
A. Compliance With Reporting Requirements ......... 683
1. Race and the Prosecution of Drug Offenses .... 684
1997 Vol. 40 No. 3

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