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131 Harv. L. Rev. 1598 (2017-2018)
The New Governors: The People, Rules, and Processes Governing Online Speech

handle is hein.journals/hlr131 and id is 1626 raw text is: THE NEW GOVERNORS: THE PEOPLE, RULES, AND
PROCESSES GOVERNING ONLINE SPEECH
Kate Klonick
IN T R O D U C T IO N  ..........................................................................................................................1599
I SECTION 230, THE FIRST AMENDMENT, AND THE BEGINNINGS OF
INTERMEDIARY SELF-REGULATION ............................................................................1603
A.  H istory  and  D evelopm  ent of  §  230................................................................................1604
B.  First Am  endm  ent Implications ................................................................................ 16o 9
C. Internet Pessim    ists, Optim ists, and  Realists...............................................................1613
II. WHY GOVERN WELL? THE ROLE OF FREE SPEECH NORMS, CORPORATE
CULTURE, AND ECONOMIC INCENTIVES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTENT
M  O D E RAT IO N ....................................................................................................................161 6
A.  Platforms' Baseline    in  Free  Speech.......................................................................... 161 8
L  F ree  Speech  N orm  s  ................................................................................................ 1618
2. Government Request and Collateral Censorship Concerns ..................................1622
B .  W hy  M oderate  A t  A ll?....................................................................................................1625
L Corporate Responsibility and Identity ...................................................................1626
2.  E conom  ic  R easons.....................................................................................................1627
III. HOW ARE PLATFORMS GOVERNING? THE RULES, PROCESS, AND REVISION OF
CONTENT-MODERATION SYSTEMS..............................................................................1630
A. Development of Moderation: From          Standards to Rules ............................................1631
B. How the Rules Are Enforced: Trained Human Decisionmaking..............................1635
L  E x  Ante  Content  M  oderation...................................................................................1636
2. Ex Post Proactive Manual Content Moderation...................................................1638
3. Ex Post Reactive Manual Content Moderation ....................................................1638
4. Decisions, Escalations, and Appeals .......................................................................1647
C. System Revision and the Pluralistic System          of Influence.........................................1649
L   G overnm  ent  R equests  ............................................................................................ 1650
2.  M edia  C overage  .........................................................................................................1652
3.  T hird-P arty  Influences..............................................................................................1655
4. Change Through Process ..........................................................................................1657
D. Within Categories of the First Amendment ..............................................................1658
IV. THE NEW GOVERNORS ....................................................................................................1662
A .  E qu al  A ccess  ....................................................................................................................1665
B .  A ccou n tability  ..................................................................................................................1666
C O N C L U SIO N  ...............................................................................................................................166 9

1598

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