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130 Harv. L. Rev. 1539 (2016-2017)
How Private Insurers Regulate Public Police

handle is hein.journals/hlr130 and id is 1565 raw text is: VOLUME 130                                         APRIL 2017                                          NUMBER 6
HARVARD LAW REVIEW
© 2017 by The Harvard Law Review Association
ARTICLE
HOW PRIVATE INSURERS REGULATE PUBLIC POLICE
John Rappaport
CONTENTS
IN T R O D U C T IO N  ..........................................................................................................................154 1
I. THE PROVISION OF POLICE LIABILITY INSURANCE ...............................................1550
A. Conceptual Overview          of Liability Insurance...........................................................1551
B. The 1980s Insurance Crisis and the Rise of Intergovernmental Risk Pools...........1555
C. The Contemporary Market for Police Liability Insurance........................................1558
i. Commercial Insurance, Risk Pooling, and Self-Insurance ..................................1558
2. The Pervasiveness of Private Influence ..................................................................1566
D. The Typical Terms of Coverage ......................................................................................1570
II. HOW INSURERS REGULATE THE POLICE....................................................................1573
A. Loss Prevention...............................................................................................................1573
i. Policy Development ...................................................................................................1574
2. Education and Training............................................................................................1576
3 .  A u d its  ..........................................................................................................................158 2
4.  A ccred  itation  ..............................................................................................................1584
5.  P erson  n el  ....................................................................................................................1585
6. Omnibus and Structural Reforms ............................................................................1586
B. Underwriting and Rating...............................................................................................1587
i. Coverage Denial .........................................................................................................1588
2.  D ifferentiated    Prem  ium  s  .......................................................................................1589
3. Deductibles and Self-Insured Retentions...............................................................1590
4 .  L im its  ..........................................................................................................................15 9 1
C. The Regulatory Role of Reinsurers............................................................................1591
D. A Note on Making Governments Pay...........................................................................1593
III. QUESTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS....................................................................................1595
A. Does Police Insurance Reduce Police Misconduct? ..................................................1595
B .  The  R isk  of  Overregulation....................................................................................... 16o
C. Democratic Accountability ............................................................................................1603
D. Law's Content ..................................................................................................................1607
E .  The  R ole  of  Insurance   Law   ........................................................................................ 161o
C O N C L U SIO  N  ...............................................................................................................................1613
1539

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