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127 Harv. L. Rev. 1521 (2013-2014)
Misreading like a Lawyer: Cognitive Bias in Statutory Interpretation

handle is hein.journals/hlr127 and id is 1549 raw text is: VOLUME 127                                       APRIL 2014                                        NUMBER 6
HARVARD LAW REVIEW
© 2014 by The Harvard Law Review Association
ARTICLES
MISREADING LIKE A LAWYER: COGNITIVE BIAS
IN STATUTORY INTERPRETATION
Jill C. Anderson
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................................................1522
I. TROUBLEMAKING VERBS: OPAQUE SENTENCES AND HOW TO SPOT THEM... 1527
A.  Transparent vs. Opaque       Sentences...................................................................... ...... 1528
B. Two Ways to Read Opaque Sentences: De Re and De Dicto.....................................1532
C. Detecting De Dicto and De Re Readings ....................................................................1535
H .   EX  AM   PLES   O F  M ISREAD    IN G  ...........................................................................................1538
A .  F raud  by  Im personation   .............................................................................................. 1538
B .  O bstruction  of  Justice................................................................................................ ...1544
C .  G en ocid e..........................................................................................................................1553
1. Interpreting Genocide in the Rwanda Tribunal....................................................1554
2. De Re and De Dicto Readings of Genocide ..........................................................1557
D .  D isability  R ights  .............................................................................................................1563
III. WHY DO LAWYERS MISREAD? ......................................................................................1568
A .  C lues from  P sychology   ................................................................................................ 1568
1. Evidence from       Psycholinguistics: Acquiring Opacity...........................................1569
2. Explanations from Theories of Cognitive Bias .....................................................1574
B. The Role of Law       in Propagating Error ........................................................................1579
1.  Tools  L aw yers  L ack  ............................................................................................. 1580
2. Tools Lawyers Use that Do Not Work ...................................................................1582
C. A Synthesized Account of Misreading .........................................................................1583
IV. WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT MISREADING?..................................................................1584
A. Organizing a Paradigm of Readings.............................................................................1585
1. De Re Only.................................................................................................................1586
2. De Dicto Only............................................................................................................1586
3.  D e  R e  or  D e  D icto....................................................................................................1587
4.  D e  R e  and  D e  D icto ...............................................................................................1587
B. Traditional Approaches: Drafting and Defaults? .........................................................1587
C. Innovative Interventions: Technology and a New Heuristic.....................................1589
CONCLUSION ...............................................................................................................................1591
1521

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