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126 Harv. L. Rev. 411 (2012-2013)
Historical Gloss and the Separation of Powers

handle is hein.journals/hlr126 and id is 421 raw text is: VOLUME 126                                DECEMBER 2012                                        NUMBER 2
HARVARD LAW REVIEW
0 2012 by The Harvard Law Review Association
ARTICLES
HISTORICAL GLOSS AND THE
SEPARATION OF POWERS
Curtis A. Bradley and Trevor W Morrison
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................412
.     HISTORICAL PRACTICE AND CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION......................417
A. Prevalence of the Historical Gloss Argument ...............................................................417
B. Constitutional Theory and Judicial Review.................................................................424
1. Constitutional Theory.................................................................................................424
2. Judicial Review ............................................................................................................428
3. The Importance of Ambiguity............................................................................430
II.   INSTITUTIONAL ACQUIESCENCE ...........................................................................432
A. The Meaning and Value of Acquiescence..................................................433
i. Acquiescence as Agreement .......................................................................................433
2. Acquiescence as Waiver..............................................................................................435
3. Acquiescence and the Limits of Judicial Review ....................................................436
B. The Madisonian Paradigm and Its Problems ..............................................................438
1. Structural Impediments to Congressional Action ...................................................440
2. Political Asymmetries Between Congress and the Presidency..............................441
3. Modern Congressional-Executive Relations............................................................444
III. REASSESSING HISTORICAL GLOSS .................................................................................447
A. Implications for Acquiescence Arguments.................................................................448
r. Legislative Acquiescence ............................................................................................448
2. Executive Acquiescence..............................................................................................452
B. Historical Practice Without Acquiescence ...................................................................455
r. Burkean Values and Principled Decisionmaking....................................................455
2. The Legitimacy of Law and the Role of the Courts ..............................................456
3. Internal Reliance by the Executive Branch.............................................................457
IV .  C A SE  ST U D IE S  .......................................................................................................................461
A. War Powers ....................................................................................................................... 461
B. Congressional-Executive Agreements............................................................................468
C.  R em oval of  E xecutive   Officers........................................................................................476
C O N C L U SIO N  ...................................................................................................................... ..... -485
411

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